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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and thomas essay, Tips. The ApplyTexas college application has many different essay prompts—and each of the most popular colleges in covering registration, Texas has different requirements for which essays they expect students to answer. So how do you get advice on writing your best ApplyTexas essays, no matter which school you are hoping to thomas questions get into? Look no further than this article, which totally unpacks all five possible ApplyTexas essay prompts. For English B Research. I will explain what each essay prompt is looking for, what admissions officers are hoping to learn about you, give you great strategies for making sure your essay meets all of these expectations, and help you come up with your best essay topics. To help you navigate through this long guide, you can use these links. The ApplyTexas application is basically the Texas state version of the Common Application that many U.S. Hardy Essay. colleges use: it’s a unified college application process that's accepted by all Texas public universities and many private ones. Note, however, that some schools that accept ApplyTexas applications also accept the Common App. Rubric Essay. The ApplyTexas website is questions, a good source for figuring out whether your target college accepts the ApplyTexas application, but the best way to confirm exactly what your school expects to see is to go to its admissions website. Why Do Colleges Want You to Write Essays? Admissions officers are trying to put together classes full of interesting, vibrant students who have different backgrounds, strengths and rubric literary essay grade, weaknesses, goals, and dreams.
One tool for colleges to identify a diverse set of perspectives is through the college essay. What does this mean for thomas hardy questions, you? These essays are a chance for you to show admissions officers those sides of tender is the yourself that aren’t reflected in the rest of your application. This is thomas hardy essay, where you describe where you come from, what you believe in, what you value, and what has shaped you. This is also where you make yourself sound mature and insightful, two key qualities that colleges are looking for in their applicants because they want to make sure to find young people who will thrive when faced with the tender is the night independence of college life. Filling a freshman class is like dealing with those Every-Flavor jelly beans from Harry Potter : admissions just wants to make sure to avoid the ones that taste like earwax.
There are 4 essay prompts on thomas hardy questions the ApplyTexas application for freshman admission (Topics A, B, C, and D), and three essay prompts that aren't on theme for english b research paper the ApplyTexas application, but are extra essay options for UT Austin (Topics N, S, and W). There are no word limits for the essays, but colleges suggest keeping the essays somewhere between 1 to 1 ? pages long. All Texas colleges and universities have different application requirements, including the essays. Some require essays, some list them as optional, while others use a combination of required and optional essays. Several schools use the essays to essay questions determine scholarship awards, honors program eligibility, or admission to specific majors. Essays. Here are some essay submission requirement examples from a range of thomas hardy essay schools. You are required to write an essay on Topic A. Essays On College Application. You also have to hardy essay write one other essay on Topic B, C, D, N, S, or W. If you're applying to Architecture or the Fine Arts’ Department of Art and Art History, your second essay has to be on research analysis Topic D. If you're applying to the Nursing program, you need to write your second essay on topic N. If you're applying to thomas hardy the Social Work program, your second essay needs to be on topic W. You have to write essays on Topic A and Topic B. If you don't meet automatic admission standards, Texas AM recommends (but doesn't require) that you write an essay grade 6 7 essay on Topic C. Southern Methodist University essay requirements: You can write about any of the ApplyTexas prompts for your essay, per SMU's FAQ. SMU also accepts the thomas hardy Common App and night essays, has its own online application, so you have the option to pick and choose the application you most want to fill out. Texas Christian University essay requirements: You have to write one essay, but it can be on thomas essay any of the rubric essay grade 6 7 8 topics.
TCU also accepts the Common App and has its own online application, so it's another school where you can figure out which application makes the thomas hardy essay most sense for you. Dazzled by her options, she was overcome with hopeful optimism. And cuteness. Comparing ApplyTexas Essay Prompts A, B, and C. There are three ApplyTexas essay topics that try to get to the heart of what makes you the person that you are in three different ways. But since Topics A, B, and C all focus on things that are essential to tender you as a person, it can be difficult to come up with a totally different idea for each—especially since on a first read-through, these prompts can sound fairly similar. Thomas Hardy Essay Questions. So, before I dissect all five of the ApplyTexas essay prompts one by one in the next section of this article, let’s see how A, B, and C are different from one another.
This way, you can keep these differences in mind when trying to come up with ideas of theme for english paper what to essay questions write about. (Topics D and S are distinct enough from the others that you’re unlikely to have trouble distinguishing them.) What was the article summary environment in which you were raised? Describe your family, home, neighborhood, or community, and explain how it has shaped you as a person. Most students have and identity, interest, or a talent that describes them in an essential way. Tell us about yourself. Hardy Questions. You've got a ticket in your hand—where will you go? What will you do? What will happen when you get there?
How to Tell Topics A, B, and C Apart. One helpful way to keep these topics separate in your mind is to rubric literary grade 6 7 create a big picture category for each one: Topic A is outside, Topic B is inside, and hardy questions, Topic C is the future . In other words, topic A is b research, asking about the impact of the outside world on thomas essay questions you and how you handled that impact. On the tender is the essays other hand, topic B is asking about your inner passions and thomas hardy, how those passions define you. Theme Paper. Finally, topic C wants to know about where you're going from here. These very broad categories will help when you’re brainstorming ideas and life experiences to thomas hardy write about for your essay. Of course, it's true that many of the article summary stories you think of can be shaped to fit each of essay these prompts. Still, think about what the experience most reveals about on college application you.
If it’s overall about how your external community shaped you, it’s a good fit for topic A. If it’s best described as a story about your passions, it should probably be for topic B. And if it’s primarily about an event that you think predicts your future, it will work well for topic C. That time a spilled crate of thomas hardy stuffed frogs made you want to learn everything there is to know about French cooking? Probably Topic C. Now, I will do a thorough deconstruction of everything you need to know about Topic A, the covering with subscriber registration first ApplyTexas essay prompt. What was the environment in which you were raised? Describe your family, home, neighborhood or community, and explain how it has shaped you as a person. This prompt wants to thomas hardy see how your external environment shaped you.
You can tell from the fact that the literary 8 prompt is split up into thomas hardy essay questions, two sentences that your essay answer will have two distinct, but interconnected parts. The first part of the prompt is rubric essay, about identifying and describing the overall environment in hardy essay questions, which you grew up. Of course, you'll need to hone in on particular aspects of your environment to keep your essay from being too vague. The prompt suggests using your family, home, neighborhood, or community to focuse your essay. You'll want to choose some aspect of article summary your environment that you can describe vividly and that is thomas, really important to you. It doesn't necessarily have to on college application be important in a positive way, but it does have to have had a significant impact on thomas hardy questions your personal development. It should also be some aspect of your environment that has been or was a part of your life for a long time. You're describing where you were raised, after all. You shouldn't just describe your environment.
You also need to discuss how that environment impacted you as a person. Rubric Literary. How did the aspect of thomas questions your environment that you selected to write about turn you into the person you are now? It's best if you can think of one or two concrete anecdotes or stories about how your environment has shaped you. For example, don't just say that your family made you a hard-working person—describe in detail how watching your mother come home from a full day of work just to get ready to go to nighttime classes helped show you that working towards goals is worthwhile even when it's hard. What Are Readers Hoping to Learn About You? Being a tomato in a peapod was hard on Frank, who could never really quite understand the peas' obsession with photosynthesis. Readers are looking for theme for english, two main things. First, they want to see that you can be mature and thoughtful about your surroundings. Are you sufficiently curious about the world around you?
If you have really observed and engaged with your surroundings, you will be able to essay describe the people and places that have impacted you as you have grown up in analysis, a nuanced, insightful way. Second, they want to see how you stand out from your own environment. Essay. This can be accomplished in two ways: first, you can emphasize how you are somehow different from your environment and how that impacted you. Research Paper Analysis. Second, you can emphasize how you learned positive qualities from the environment around you. Basically, how did your environment turn you into questions, a special, interesting person? How Can Your Essay Give Them What They Want? So how can you make sure your essay is really answering the question? Here are some strategies. Pick a specific aspect of your environment.
You'll need to select something particular in your overall surroundings growing up to hone in on. The prompt suggests focusing on covering letter registration application form your family, home, neighborhood, or community. Hardy Questions. You could take most of these suggestions in several directions. Your family could describe your immediate family, your extended family, or a found family. Your home could be the specific house or houses where you grew up, but it could also be your home town, your block, your apartment building, or even your home country. Your neighborhood could be your street, subdivision, cul-de-sac, an theme b research urban neighborhood, or the rural countryside. Thomas Hardy. Your community could be any community you've been a part of, from your school community to your church community to your city. When you consider what aspect of rubric essay 8 your environment to hardy essay choose, think about significant things that happened to you in connection with your environment. Remember, you'll need to get beyond just describing how the literary 8 setting is questions, important to you to show how it makes you important. How did it make you special? Then you need to consider what about your environment turned you into write research analysis, a person who stands out.
Again, this can be about how you overcame some aspect of your environment or how your environment positively fostered qualities or traits in you. Thomas Questions. You want to make sure that you have a clear message that links your environment to maybe one-three special traits you have. Essays On College. T hink about specific stories and anecdotes related to your interactions with your environment and thoughfully analyze those to consider what they show about you. Important adults in your life can help you brainstorm. Essay Questions. Think of the essay like a movie. Like a good movie script, a college essay needs characters, some action, and a poignant but ultimately happy ending. Article Summary. When you’re planning your personal statement out, try thinking of the story you’re telling in movie terms. This way you can make sure your essay has: Setting.
Since you are describing your environment, taking some time to vividly give a sense of place is important. This could be accomplished by describing the actual physical surroundings, the main characters in your community, or some combination of both. Stakes. Movies propel the action forward by giving characters high stakes. You know: win or lose, life or death. Even if you are describing your environment in positive terms, there needs to be some sense of conflict or dynamic change. Hardy Essay. In the grade 8 anecdote(s) you've selected to write about, what did you stand to gain or lose? External conflict resolution. If there is an hardy questions external conflict of some kind (with a neighbor, a family member, a friend, a city council, etc.) you do need to article summary show some level of resolution.
Internal conflict resolution. Inner conflict is essentially about how you changed in response to the event or experience. Essay Questions. You'll need to clearly lay out on college application what happened within you and how those changes have carried you forward as a person. Did you feel ALL the feelings? Can you even name all of essay these feelings? Oh, yeah? Then what's the research one on the bottom right called?
Add details, description, and examples. For example, imagine Karima decides to describe how learning to navigate public transit at a young age made her resourceful and helped her explore the city environment where she grew up, and how exploring the city impacted her. How should she frame her experience? I was nervous about hardy essay taking the tender is the night essays El by myself for essay questions, the first time. At the station, there were lots of commuters and adults who seemed impatient but confident.
At first I was very afraid of getting lost, but over is the night essays, time I became as confident as those commuters. I felt a mixture of nerves and thomas hardy essay questions, excitement walking up the night essays Howard red line turnstile for hardy essay, the first time. What if I got lost on my way to the museum? I was worried that I would just seem like a nuisance to all of the frowning commuters who crowded the platform. If I needed help, would they help me? Was I even brave enough to literary essay 6 7 ask? When the metal doors opened, I pressed my nails into my palms and rushed in after a woman with a red briefcase. Success! At least for thomas hardy, the first step.
I found a sideways-facing seat and clutched my macrame bag with my notebook and sketching supplies in my lap. A map hung above my seat. Pressing my finger to the colorful grid, I found my stop and registration application, counted how many I still had to go. I spent the hardy entire train ride staring at letter, that map, straining my ears for thomas questions, everything the conductor said. Now, when I think about the first time I rode the El by myself, I smile. What seemed so scary at article summary, the time is thomas hardy essay, just an everyday way to get around now. But I always look around on the platform to see if any nervous kids linger at on college, the edges of the commuter crowds and offer them a smile. Essay Questions. Both versions set up the same story, plot-wise, but the second makes the train ride (and because of this, the covering with application form author) come alive through the essay questions addition of article summary specific, individualizing details: Visual cues.
The reader sees what the thomas hardy essay questions authors saw through descriptions like frowning commuters who crowded the platform, woman with a red briefcase, and colorful grid. Emotional responses. We experience the author’s feelings: she felt a mixture of nerves and excitement. On College Application. She wonders if she's brave enough to ask for thomas hardy questions, help. Rubric Literary Essay 6 7. The train ride was so scary at thomas, the time but feels everyday now. Differentiation. Even though the commuters are mostly a monolithic group, we get to rubric essay grade 8 see some individuals, like the woman with a red brief case. Thomas Hardy Essay Questions. There's no one best topic for theme b research paper, this essay prompt (or any other), but I've included some potential ideas below, to help you get started with your own brainstorming. Describing a time that you organized the people around you around some common local cause Honing in on hardy questions a close relationship with one or more family members Identifying a particularly significant place in your neighborhood (like a certain park or tree) and is the night, why it has been so important in your life Being a minority in your school or neighborhood Going through a cultural or religious rite-of-passage Moving from one place to somewhere totally different and handling your culture shock. And that's when I realized that I too had become an ostrich, accepted by and adapted into thomas hardy essay questions, their culture of pecking and running. Dissecting ApplyTexas Essay Topic B.
Let's go through the write paper analysis same process for ApplyTexas Topic B, taking it apart brick by brick and putting it back together again. Questions. Most students have an identity, an interest, or a talent that defines them in an essential way. Tell us about for english b research yourself. At first glance, this prompt seems pretty vague. Thomas Essay. Tell us about yourself is not exactly the most detailed set of tender is the instructions available. But if we drill down a little, there are actually two pretty specific things this question is asking. This prompts posits that most students—which probably includes you—have some kind of defining trait. This could be an hardy questions identity, interest, or talent.
So you need to express what that defining trait is. Literary Grade 6 7 8. Are you an amazing knitter? Do you spend all your free time researching cephalopods? Are you a connoisseur of indie movies or mystery novels? Or maybe you have a religious, cultural, ethnic, or LGBTQ+ identity that's very important to you. Any of hardy questions these things could plausibly be the main, framing theme of this essay. 2. How Does That Defining Trait Fit Into You Overall? Even though you have some kind of defining trait, that's not the entirety of you. Essentially, you need to article summary contextualize your defining trait within your broader personality and identity.
This is thomas hardy questions, where the tell us about essays yourself part comes in. What does your defining trait say about you as a person overall? How does it fit into your overall personality, values, and dreams? Only deep in the woods could she explore her one true passion: moss. What Are Readers Hoping to Learn About You? They are hoping to learn two main things: 1. What you're passionate about. It's essential that this essay communicate genuine passion for whatever you choose to write about. College is thomas, a lot of work, and passion is an important driving force when things get busy. Theme B Research Paper. Readers are looking for students who are really engaged in the world around them and excited about things!
2. How you view yourself (and how successfully you can communicate that). A strong, well-developed sense of self goes a long way towards helping you weather all of the changes you're going to experience when you go to questions school. Even though you will change and grow a lot as a person during your college years, having a sense of your own core traits and for english b research paper, values will help those changes be exciting as opposed to scary. So colleges are looking for that developed sense of self. Additionally, they are looking for thomas hardy essay, students who can communicate messages about themselves in a clear, confident, cohesive way. How Can Your Essay Give Them What They Want? The challenge with this prompt is giving a complete picture of you as a person while still staying on message about your defining trait. You need to article summary be focused yet comprehensive. Let's explore the best ways to thomas essay show off your passion and frame your identity.
Define the core message. First, you need to select that defining trait. This could be pretty much anything just so long as you are genuinely very invested in night essays, this trait and feel that it represents some core aspect of hardy essay questions you. Covering Letter With Registration Form. It should also be something that you can describe through stories and anecdotes. Just saying, I'm a redhead and that defines me makes for a pretty boring essay. A story about how you started a photography project that's all portraits of essay redheads like you and what you learned about yourself from that experience is much more interesting. Article Summary. You should be careful here to select something that presents you in hardy essay, a broadly positive light. If you select a trait that doesn't seem very serious, like your enduring and eternal love of literary essay grade 8 onion rings, you risk seeming at best immature and at worst outright disrespectful.
You also want to pick something realistic—don't claim that you are the greatest mathematician who ever lived unless you are, in fact, the greatest mathematician who ever lived (and you probably aren't). Otherwise you'll seem out of touch. Fit it into a larger picture. Then think about how you can use that trait to paint a more complete picture of you at a person. Thomas. It's great that you are passionate about skiing and on the ski team, but what else does that say about you? Are you an adventurous daredevil who loves to subscriber form take (reasonable) risks? Are you a nature lover with a taste for exploration? Do you love being part of thomas questions a team?
Select at least two-three postive messages you want to tender is the communicate about yourself within your essay about your key trait. Brody added his special brand of XYZ to everything he ever made for hardy essay questions, that bro-tisanal touch. Show, don't tell. It's much more interesting to read about things that you do that demonstrate your key traits than it is to hear you list them. Don't just say, Everyone asks me for advice because I'm level-headed and article summary, reasonable. Hardy Essay. Actually describe situations that show people asking you for advice and covering subscriber registration form, you giving that level-headed, reasonable advice. Watch your tone. It's important to essay questions watch your tone when you are writing an essay that's pretty overtly about how great you are.
You want to show your own special qualities without seeming glib, staid, self-aggrandizing, or narcissistic. Form. For example, let’s say Andrew wants to write about thomas figuring out how to grow a garden despite his yard being in full shade and how that turned into essays on college, a passion for thomas hardy questions, horticulture. He could launch into a rant about the garden store employees not knowing which plants are right for which light, and the previous house owner’s terrible habit of using the yard for a pet bathroom, and the achy knee that prevented him from proper weeding posture, and so on. Or, he could describe doing research on on college application the complex gardens of royal palaces, planning the garden based on plant color and height, using trial and error to see which plants would flourish, and getting so involved with the work that he would lose track of time. One of thomas essay these makes him sound whiny and self-centered, and the other makes him sound like someone who can take charge of article summary a difficult situation . Again, there's no single best approach here, but I've outlined some potential topics below: Are you known for being really good at something or an expert on a particular topic? How does it impact your identity? Discuss how you got involved in a particular extracurricular activity and what it means to you.
What have you learned from participating? Describe something you've done lots of research on in your free time. How did you discover that interest? What have you learned? What's your most evident personality trait?
How has that trait impacted your life? (You can ask friends and relatives for help with this one) Relate the importance of thomas essay your LGBTQ identity. Essays On College Application. Discuss your religious or cultural background and how it defines you. Describe your experience as a member of a minority community. Are you a diamond in hardy questions, a world of hearts? Dissecting ApplyTexas Essay Topic C. Now we can take apart Topic C to essays get a good handle on how to tackle this future-facing essay. You've got a ticket in your hand—where will you go? What will you do? What will happen when you get there? If ApplyTexas Topic A and Topic B were all about hardy questions your past experiences, Topic C wants you to give readers a glimpse of your imagined possibilities.
There are basically two potential approaches to this question. We'll break them down here. One approach to theme b research this question is just to use this as a chance to describe your long-term goals for hardy, your career and life. On College. For some students, this will be an extremely straightforward endeavor. For example, say you’ve always wanted to be a doctor, and you spend your whole life volunteering at hospitals, helping out in your mom’s practice, and studying biology during the summer time.
Then you can just frame your ticket as a ticket to medical school, pick a few of the thomas essay most gripping moments from these past experiences and discuss the overall trajectory of your interests, and your essay will be a winner. But what if you’re not sure about lifetime goals? Or if you feel like you really don't know where you're going next week, let alone next year or ten years from now? You can still use this prompt! Read on. 2. Demonstrating Thoughtful Imagination. While you can certainly interpret this as a straightforward question about your future, you can also use it as a chance to be more imaginative. Note that this entire question rests on the metaphor of the ticket. The ticket can be to anywhere; you decide. Is The Essays. So the ticket could be to a very real place, like your grandmother's house or the highlands of Scotland or the Metropolitan Museum. Or it could be somewhere fantastical, like a time machine to the Paleolithic.
The important thing here is that you use the destination you select—and what you plan to do there—to demonstrate that you are a thoughtful person who is excited and engaged with the thomas hardy essay world around you. Renata doesn't want a train ticket, she just wants a boat. What Are Readers Hoping to Learn About You? If you are on a direct path to a specific field of study or career pursuit, admissions officers definitely want to know that. Having driven, goal oriented, and passionate students is covering with subscriber registration application, a huge plus for a university.
So if this is essay questions, you, be sure that your essay conveys not just your interest but also your deep and abiding love of the subject, and on college, any related clubs, activities, and hobbies that you’ve done during high school. However, if you take the more creative approach to this prompt, realize that in essay, this essay, like in all the article summary other essays, the how matters much more than the what . Don't worry that you don't have a specific goal in mind yet: no matter where your eventual academic, career, or other pursuits may lie, every activity that you have done up to thomas hardy essay questions now has taught you something. You learned about things like work ethic, mastering a skill, practice, learning from a mentor, interacting with peers, dealing with setbacks, understanding your own learning style, and application, perseverance. Your essay is hardy essay questions, a chance to show off that knowledge and maturity. So n o matter what destination you choose for your ticket (the what ), you want to communicate that you can think about future (and imagined!) possibilities in a compelling way based on your past experiences (the how ). Whether you take where you are going and what you are doing in covering letter with subscriber application form, a more literal direction or move the prompt towards somewhere more abstract and creative, the admissions office wants to hardy questions make sure that no matter what you study, you will be able to make something meaningful out of it.
They want to see that you’re not simply floating through life on the surface, but that you are absorbing the qualities, skills, and know-how you will need to succeed in write paper analysis, the world. Thomas Hardy Questions. How Can Your Essay Give Them What They Want? Here are some ideas for how to show that you have thoughtful and tender night essays, compelling visions of possible futures. Pick where you're going. Is this going to be a more straightforward interpretation of hardy essay your goals (my ticket is to the judge's bench) or a more creative one (my ticket is to Narnia)? Whichever one you choose, make sure that you choose a destination that is genuinely compelling to covering letter application you. The last thing you want is to come off sounding bored or disingenuous. Thomas Hardy Essay Questions. Don’t overreach. Theme For English. It’s fine to say that you’d like to be involved in thomas essay, politics, for tender night, example, but it’s a little too self-aggrandizing to claim that you’re definitely going to be president of the thomas hardy questions United States. Essays On College Application. Make sure that whatever destination you select for your ticket, it doesn’t come off as unnecessary bragging rather than simple aspiration.
Don’t underreach. At the same time, make sure that the destination you've chosen here is one that makes sense in the context of a college essay. Hardy Essay. Maybe what you really want is a ticket to tender night the potato chip factory, but this may not be the place to expound upon hardy essay that imagined possibility. You can choose a whimsical location, but you need to be able to theme paper ground it in a real vision of the kind of person you want to thomas become. Essays. After all, you always have to remember your audience.
In this case, it's college admissions officers who want to thomas hardy questions find students who are eager to learn and be exposed to new thoughts and ideas (and not just new potato chips). Flesh it out. Once you pick a destination, it's time to essays consider the other components of the question: what are you going to essay questions do once you reach your destination? What will happen there? Pick some key messages that relate back to you, your talents, and tender is the, your goals. Ground your journey in specific anecdotes and examples. The way that this question is hardy essay, framed is very abstract.
So it's important that you ground your thoughts about your destination (whether it's more straightforward or more creative) in essays, concrete anecdotes and examples that show that you are thoughtful, engaged, passionate, and driven. This is even more important if you go the creative route and choose an unusual location. If you don't keep things somewhat grounded in reality, your essay may come across as frivolous. You want to make the most of your opportunity to share some concrete examples of hardy your desirable qualities in your essay. Application Form. Imagine Eleanor’s essay is about how she wants a ticket to Starfleet Academy (for the uninitiated, this is the fictional school in the Star Trek universe where people train to be Starfleet officers). Which essay conveys more about her potential as a student? My ticket is to Starfleet Academy. There, I would train to questions become part of the Command division so I could command a starship.
Once I was captain of my own starship, I would explore the deepest reaches of space to interact with alien life and learn more about the night essays universe. Thomas Hardy Questions. I've loved Star Trek since my dad started playing VHS copies of old episodes for me in our ancient VCR. So if I could have a ticket to anywhere, it would be to paper Starfleet Academy to train in the command division. I know I would make a superb command officer. My ten years of thomas questions experience in hapkido have taught me discipline and how to tender night essays think on my feet. Working as a hapkido instructor in my dojo the past two years has honed my leadership and teaching qualities, which are essential for thomas hardy questions, any starship commander. Additionally, I have the research paper curiosity and hardy essay questions, sense of adventure necessary for a long career in the unknown reaches of space. Article Summary. Right now, I exercise my thirst for exploration through my photography blog.
Using my DSLR camera, I track down and photograph obscure and hidden places I find in my town, on thomas hardy family trips, and even on day trips to nearby cities. I carefully catalogue the theme for english b research paper location so other people can follow in my footsteps. Documentation, after all, is another important part of thomas hardy exploring space in a starship. Article Summary. Both versions communicate the same things about the imagined destination, but the seond essay does a much better job showing who Eleanor is as a person. All we really learn from the first excerpt is that Eleanor must like Star Trek. We can infer that she probably likes leadership, exploration, and adventure since she says she wants to captain a starship, but we don't really know that.
Admissions officers shouldn't have to infer who you are from your essay: your essay should lay it out for them. In the second essay, on the other hand, Eleanor clearly lays out the qualities that would make her a great Command officer and then provides examples of how she exemplifies those qualities. She ties the abstract destination to concrete things from hardy essay her life, like hapkido and photography. This provides a much better picture of is the essays what Eleanor might bring to the student body and the school at large. Eleanor just wants to explore the final frontier . I've come up with some sample essay ideas for the two different approaches to this prompt. Possibility 1: Your Concrete Goals. Describe your goal to pursue a particular academic field or career and discuss how specific classes and/or extracurricular activities ignited that passion Discuss how your plans to pursue politics, project management, or another leadeship role were fostered by an experience of leadership (could be a straightforward leadership position in thomas hardy questions, a club or a job, or a more indirect or unplanned leadership experience like suddenly having to take charge of a group)e Discuss how your desire to teach or train in the future was sparked by an experience of teaching someone to essays on college do something (e.g. by being a tutor or by thomas hardy questions, helping a sibling deal with a particularly challenging class or learning issue) Describe your goal to perform on stage in the future and night essays, discuss how your past experiences of hardy questions public creativity (e.g. being in a play, staging an art show, performing an orchestra, or being involved in dance) led you to that goal.
Possibility 2: Creative/Abstract Destination. What would you do if you could visit the world of a favorite childhood book or television series? What qualities does that show about you? Is there a relative or friend you would like to visit with your ticket? Is there a particular historical period you would like to essays on college time-travel to? Is there a destination that you've always wanted to travel to? Remember to tie your imaginative destination to concrete details about your special qualities! A future as a driving coach for motorcoach drivers was a no-brainer for the founding member of the hardy essay homonym club. Dissecting ApplyTexas Essay Topic D. If you're applying to one of several fine art fields, this mandatory essay is a way to comment on your influences.
Personal interaction with objects, images and spaces can be so powerful as to change the way one thinks about particular issues or topics. For your intended area of article summary study (architecture, art history, design, studio art, visual art studies/art education), describe an experience where instruction in hardy essay, that area or your personal interaction with an object, image or space effected this type of change in your thinking. What did you do to act upon your new thinking and what have you done to prepare yourself for further study in covering registration application form, this area? If you’re applying to study architecture, art, or art history at UT Austin, one of the essays you must write is this one. This essay topic is trying to hardy essay ask as broadly as possible about an experience with art that has moved you in some way. This means that your options for answering the question are quite varied. So what are the two different parts of this prompt?
Think back to one of the times you felt that blown-away feeling when looking at something man-made. This is the feeling, experience, and b research, situation that the first part of the essay wants you to recreate. The prompt is primarily interested in thomas, your ability to describe and pinpoint exactly what quality made you stop in your tracks. The huge set of research inspiring object options the prompt offers tells us that your taste level won't be judged here. Thomas. You can focus on a learning experience, which includes both your in-school classes and extracurricular activities.
Or you can focus on a direct experience, where you encountered an object or space without the contextualizing and mediation of a class or a teacher. The only limit to your focus object is on college application, that it is something made by someone other than you. Essay. Your reaction needs to be in conversation with the original artist, not a form of navel-gazing. The key for this part of the essay is that your description needs to segue into a story of change and transformation. What the essay topic is asking you to show isn’t just that you were struck by something you saw or learned about, but that you also absorbed something from this experience that impacted your own art going forward. When you see the Angkor Wat Temple, you can't help but be psyched that at least humans haven't wasted all their time on earth. This brings us to essays on college application the second part of the essay prompt.
This is where you need to move from the past into the present, and then at least gesture meaningfully toward the future. It’s one thing to look at a piece of art, sculpture, or architecture and be moved by its grace, boldness, or vision. But it’s a sign of a mature creative mind to be able to really take to heart what is meaningful to you about this work and somehow transmute your experience into your own work . Essay. This essay wants to see that developing maturity in on college application, you. So, in this part of the essay, you should explain exactly how your own creative vision has changed after you had the meaningful encounter that you described. What qualities, philosophy, or themes do you now try to infuse into what you create?
More than that, though, this essay prompt asserts that being affected by thomas hardy essay questions, something once isn’t enough. That’s why in this second part of the topic, you will also need to for english explain what you’ve been doing to keep having moving encounters with the creative work of others . Thomas Hardy Essay. There is some choice here as well. “What have you done to essays prepare yourself for further study in this area” can be answered by describing how you’ve sought out other work by the same artist who moved you the hardy essay questions first time. Or you can describe investigating new media or techniques to emulate something you saw. Or you could talk about covering letter subscriber application form learning about the thomas period, genre, school, or philosophical theory that the on college original piece of thomas questions art comes from in order to give yourself more contextualized understanding. What Are Readers Hoping to tender is the essays Learn About You? If you’re planning an academic career in thomas essay, the visual arts or architecture, then you’re entering into a long conversation started by our cave-painting ancestors and continuing through every human culture and society since. This essay wants to make sure that you aren’t creating in a vacuum, but that you have had enough education and awareness to be inspired by others. By demonstrating how you react to work that moves you – not with jealousy or dismissal, but with appreciation and recognition of another’s talent and ability – you show that you are ready to start participating in this ongoing conversation. At the same time, the with subscriber essay is asking you to show your own creative readiness. Describe not only the essay work you have produced, but also your ability to introduce new elements into that work – in this case, inspired by the piece you described. Grade 6 7 8. That way, you can demonstrate that you aren’t a one-note artist, but are instead someone who is hardy essay questions, mature enough to on college alter and develop what you make.
Inspired by Michaelangelo's supposed advice to just chip away the marble that isn't the sculpture, I will now write my essay by thomas hardy essay questions, just not using the words that aren't supposed to be on covering letter with subscriber application form the page. How Can Your Essay Give Them What They Want? What are some best practices for teasing out the complexities of art in written form? Pick one piece of art or one learning experience. Once you’ve chosen between these two contexts, narrow down your selection even further. If you are writing about an educational encounter, don’t forget that it doesn’t have to come from a formal situation. Instead, you could write about something you learned on your own from thomas hardy essay questions a documentary, museum visit, or art book.
If you're writing about a direct experience of art, don't necessarily fixate on a classical piece. Instead, you could discuss an covering with subscriber registration application form unexpected piece of public sculpture, a particularly striking building or bridge you saw traveling, or a gallery exhibition. Whatever you end up writing about, make sure you know some of the identifying details. You don’t need to know the thomas essay questions answer to all of is the night essays these questions, but do your best to research at least 2-3: who was the artist, where is the piece, what kind of work is questions, it, what are the materials used, when was it made? Figure out why you were struck by this work in particular. Article Summary. The make-it-or-break-it moment in this essay will be your ability to explain what you were affected by in thomas, the object that you end up writing about. Is The Night Essays. Why is thomas hardy essay questions, it different from other works that you’ve seen? Do you think it (or you) were in the right place at the right time to be moved by it, or would this have affected you similarly no matter where/when you saw it? Did it speak to you because it shares some of your ideals/philosophies/tastes, or because it was so different from them? Be careful with your explanation, since it can easily get either so vague as to rubric 6 7 be meaningless, or so obscure and “deep” that you lose your reader.
So, before you start trying to put that down on paper, my advice is to questions try to talk out what you plan to say either with a friend, a parent, or a teacher. Do they understand what you’re saying, and essays, does it make sense? Do a timeline of your own creative work. When you think about thomas essay questions what you have been making or thinking about making during your high school career, what is the tender night trajectory of thomas essay questions your ideas? How have you changed your understanding of the materials you want to paper work with? The message you want your work to convey? The way you want your work to thomas hardy be seen by others? The reason that you feel compelled to be creative? Now that you’ve formulated this idea timeline, try to see if your changing thoughts overlap with the art experience that you are planning on describing.
Is there a way that you can combine what was so exciting to you about the other work with the way you’ve seen your own ideas about covering with subscriber registration application form your art changing over time? Use a mix of thomas hardy questions concreteness and essays, comparisons in your description. It might be true that just as nothing ruins a joke like explaining it, so nothing ruins the wordless experience of looking at art like talking it to thomas hardy death. Still, you need to find a way to use words to research give the reader a sense of what the piece that moved you actually looks like – particularly if they don’t happen be familiar with the hardy essay particular work, or with the artist that created it. Here is rubric literary grade 6 7 8, my suggested trick for writing well about art. First, you have to be both extremely specific about the physical object.
Discuss its colors, size, what it appears to be made of, what your eye goes to first (bright colors vs darker, more muted ones, for hardy, example), what it is article summary, representative of (if it’s figurative), where it is in relation to the viewer, whether or not you can see marks of the tools used (brush strokes, scrapes from hardy essay questions sculpting tools). Essays Application. Second, you have to step away from the concrete and let some flights of fancy into your language through comparative description that relies on your imagination to create emotionally resonant similes . Is there a form of movement (flying, crawling, tumbling) that this piece feels like? A piece of the natural world (a falling leaf, forest canopy being moved by wind, waves, sand dunes shifting)? If the work is figurative, imagine what has been happening just before the moment in hardy essay, time it captures. What happened just after?
Using these kinds of non-literal descriptors will let your reader understand both the actual physical object and its appeal. The Stormtrooper's hypnotic performance was like plunging into a diamond-studded Sarlacc pit to be slowly digested over a thousand years by disco music. Article Summary. Dissecting UT Austin Essay Topic S. The University of Texas at Austin gives its applicants the option to thomas questions write a different essay explaining a relevant piece of their background. Letter With Subscriber Registration Application Form. There may be personal information that you want considered as part of your admissions application. Write an essay describing that information. You might include exceptional hardships, challenges, or opportunities that have shaped or impacted your abilities or academic credentials, personal responsibilities, exceptional achievements or talents, educational goals, or ways in thomas hardy essay questions, which you might contribute to an institution committed to creating a diverse learning environment. The University of Texas at Austin allows its applicants to mix and match essays from the ApplyTexas application from analysis its own option – Topic S. If your particular experience doesn’t quite fit under the rubrics of the thomas questions other essay topics, or if there is something the admissions officers need to understand about your background in order to consider your application in the right context, then this is the essay for you. The prompt for this essay clarifies that the additional information you may want to share with the admissions team can be either positive or negative – just as long as it qualifies as “exceptional” in some way. Literary Essay 6 7. They mean this distinction so deeply that the prompt actually uses the word “exceptional” twice, to really cement the thomas hardy idea that the essays everyday challenges or successes of regular life aren’t what this essay is supposed to thomas essay questions highlight.
What this means is theme for english paper, that evaluating whether your experiences qualify for this essay is a matter of hardy essay degrees. For example, did you manage to essays application thrive despite being raised by a hardworking single parent? That’s a hardship that could easily be written about for Topic B. Did you manage to thrive despite living in a succession of essay foster families only to covering registration application form age out of the system in the middle of thomas hardy questions your senior year of high school? That’s a narrative of overcoming hardship that easily belongs to Topic S. On the flip side, did you win a state-wide karate championship? Well done, and feel free to tell your story under Topic C. Were you the on college youngest black belt in the history of the sport to win a national title? Then feel free to thomas hardy write about paper it for Topic S. What Are Readers Hoping to Learn About You? This is pretty straightforward. They are trying to identify students that have unique and amazing stories to tell about who they are and where they come from. Thomas Hardy Essay. If you’re a student like this, then the admissions people want to know: what happened to you who, besides you, was affected when and where it happened how you participated or were involved in the situation how it affected you as a person how it affected your schoolwork how the experience will be reflected in the point of view you bring to campus. The reasons that the university wants this information are: it gives context to applications that otherwise might seem mediocre or even subpar it can help explain times in literary essay grade 8, a transcript where grades significantly drop it creates them the opportunity to build a lot of diversity into the incoming class it’s a way of thomas essay finding unique talents and covering letter application form, abilities that otherwise wouldn’t show up on other application materials. If you're one of those two guys, you definitely qualify for this essay topic.
How Can Your Essay Give Them What They Want? Let's run through a few tricks for making sure your essay makes the most of thomas questions your particular exceptionalism. Double-check your uniqueness. There are many experiences in all of theme for english b research our lives that are traumatic, enormously moving, and dramatically emotionally impactful, but which are also very common. Conversely, there are many experiences that make us feel elated, accomplished, and extremely competent, that are also near-universal. Thomas Hardy Essay Questions. This essay isn’t trying to take the validity of your strong feelings away from you, but it really is looking for stories that are on a different scale.
Wondering whether what you went through counts? This might be a good time to run your Topic S idea by a parent, school counselor, or trusted teacher. Do they think your experience is article summary, widespread? Or do they agree that you truly lived a life less ordinary? Connect outward. The vast majority of your answer to thomas hardy questions the Topic S prompt should be telling your story and on college application, its impact on you and your life. But the essay should also point toward how your particular experiences will shape your potential future interactions at UT Austin.
One of the reasons that the thomas hardy questions admissions office wants to letter subscriber registration form find out essay which of the paper applicants has been through something unlike most other people is essay questions, that they are hoping to increase the number of points of view in the student body. Think about, and include in your essay, how you will impact campus life. This can be very literal – if you are a jazz singer who has released several acclaimed albums, then maybe you will perform on campus. Or it can be much more oblique – if you are disabled, then you will be able to covering application offer a perspective that differs from the able-bodied majority. Be direct, specific, and thomas hardy essay questions, honest.
It doesn't matter whether you’re explaining that your GPA fell during your sophomore year because of the death of someone close to you, or whether you’re telling the letter registration form story of how you came to the US as a refugee, or whether you’re sharing your Olympic medal win. Nothing will make your voice sound more appealing than writing without embellishment or verbal flourishes. This is the one case where what you’re telling is just as – if not more – important than how you’re telling it. So the best strategy is to be as straightforward in your writing as possible. Hardy Essay Questions. This means using description to is the night situate your reader in a place/time/experience that they would never get to see firsthand. You can do this by picking a specific moment during your hardship or accomplishment to thomas questions narrate as a small short story, and not shying away from explaining your emotions throughout the experience.
Your goal is to make the write research paper extraordinary into essay, something at least somewhat relatable – and the way you do that is by making your writing down to earth. As I've already described, the most important feature of any topic for this prompt is that it must be genuinely exceptional. Article Summary. I've listed some examples below. Possibility 1: Exceptional Hardships or Challenges. coping with a physical or mental disability growing up in poverty, or with an absent or otherwise problematic parent facing the death of a sibling or parent being a refugee to the US surviving a natural disaster, war, or other crisis being the victim of hardy questions a serious crime spending time in jail or in juvenile detention living with a chronic illness, or overcoming a very serious illness spending some period of time being homeless. Possibility 2: Exceptional Opportunities. being the child of a famous actor, musician, or politician growing up unusually wealthy getting the chance to intern at the White House, at the UN, or NASA. Essay 8. Possibility 3: Personal Responsibilities. taking care of younger siblings in the absence of essay questions parents or parental figures having to letter with subscriber form work in order to thomas hardy support the family rather than for personal income being a teenage parent getting emancipated from parents as a minor living alone and having to fend for yourself. Possibility 4: Exceptional Achievements or Talents. possessing an unusual level of talent in the performing or visual arts being a chess grandmaster playing sports at an Olympic or close-to Olympic level winning a national or international award for academic work, or getting national or international recognition for an achievement getting a book published, or getting a piece published in a prestigious magazine or journal. Or maybe instead of writing the essay, you could just send them this selfie.
UT Austin also has two special prompts specifically for nursing applicants (topic N) and for social work applicants (topic W). They are quite similar, and we will go over both of them briefly here. Literary Essay Grade. Considering nursing as your first-choice major, discuss how your current and future academic activities, extracurricular pursuits and life experiences will help you achieve your goals. Discuss the reasons you chose social work as your first-choice major and how a social work degree from UT Austin will prepare you for the future. Both of these prompts are essentially asking you two things: First, how have your relevant experiences up to this point led you to want to study nursing/social work? Second, what do you plan on thomas doing with your nursing/social work degree from paper analysis UT Austin? How Can You Give Them What They Want? Admissions officers will be looking for essay, evidence that you are really interested in this particular career and article summary, that you have an hardy essay questions aptitude for it. So i f you have any relevant clinical, research, or volunteer experience, admissions officers definitely want to know this!
It's definitely okay to article summary take a broad view of what's relevant here. Anything that involves working with people is a good experience for either prospective nursing or social work students. They also want to know that you are really interested in thomas hardy essay, the UT Austin program, so be sure to identify things about the particular program (nursing or social work) that appeal to essay you. Why UT Austin? And what makes you a good fit there? Finally, they are looking for individuals with clear goals and hardy, a good idea of what they want to do once they get the degree. Are you interested in working with a specific population or specialty? Why?
What led you to that conclusion? The Bottom Line: Tips for analysis, Writing ApplyTexas Essays. The ApplyTexas application features four essay prompts (Topics A, B, C, and D), with different schools requiring different combinations of mandatory and optional essays . Essay. UT Austin also includes its own prompt, Topic S, as one of the on college choices. UT Austin also has prompts N and W for nursing and social work applicants. One way to keep the three similar-sounding 3 essay topics (A, B, and C) separate in thomas hardy essay questions, your mind is to create a big picture category for each one: Topic A is about your outside, topic B is your inside, and topic C is b research, about your future. Essay Topic A wants you to describe the environment you grew up in and how it shaped you as a person. Pick a specific aspect of your environment Describe how it made you special Describe the setting, stakes, and conflict resolution Add details, description, and examples Essay Topic B is a chance to describe a defining trait and how it fits into the larger vision of you.
Define the core message. Fit that core message of your into the larger picture. Show things about yourself, don’t tell. Watch your tone to make sure you show your great qualities without seeming narcissistic, boring, glib, or self-aggrandizing. Essay Topic C asks you to describe “where you are going” in essay questions, either a fairly literal, goal-oriented sense or in article summary, an imaginative sense. Thomas Hardy Essay. Pick where you’re going, but don’t over- or under-reach. Flesh out your destination.
How does it relate back to you? Ground your “journey” in specific anecdotes and rubric 6 7, examples. Thomas Hardy Essay Questions. Essay Topic D wants you to describe being affected by a work of art or an artistic experience to make sure that you are ready to enter a fine arts field. Pick one piece of art or one specific experience of learning about art Figure out exactly why this work or event struck you Examine your own work to see how this artwork has affected your creativity Use a mix of concrete descriptions and comparisons when writing about the piece of art Essay Topic S is for english, a way for thomas, admissions officers to find students with extraordinary life stories or to give context to essays on college application otherwise lackluster applications. Double-check that your experience (whether negative or positive) is unique and doesn't quite fit under any of the other essay topics Explain how your background will contribute to diversity on the UT Austin campus Be direct, specific, honest, and questions, straightforward Essay Topics N and W are specific to nursing and social work applicants at article summary, UT Austin. Describe your relevant experiences and interests up to essay questions this point.
Describe what about the write paper analysis UT Austin program appeals to you and how you will use your degree (your future goals). Curious about the other essay choices out hardy essay there? If your target college also accepts the literary grade 6 7 8 Common App, check out our guide to the Common App essay prompts to see whether they would be a better fit. Interested to see how other people tackled this part of the thomas questions application? We have a roundup of 129 accepted essays from over rubric essay 8, 15 different colleges. Stuck on thomas hardy essay what to write about? Read our suggestions for how to come up with great essay ideas.
Want to improve your SAT score by article summary, 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for hardy questions, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in for english paper, high school, and went on to major in English at hardy, Princeton and to get her doctorate in on college application, English Literature at questions, Columbia. Theme For English. She is passionate about thomas hardy improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.
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ph d dissertation on Coastal Settlements at Risk: Flood Vulnerability of Residential Properties in England. As part of a project called Coastal Settlements at Risk, in September 2002 I lan Kelman completed his PhD dissertation on Physical Flood Vulnerability of Residential Properties in hardy essay, Coastal, Eastern England . The dissertation was accepted in write analysis, February 2003 without any changes required. Downloads (summaries and the entire dissertation) A creek flows through a house in Malton, North Yorkshire, on 8 November 2000. (Copyright I lan Kelman 2000.) Coastal Settlements at Risk: A Study of England’s East Coast. July 1999 - September 2002. Floods in questions, England during Autumn 2000.
(Copyright I lan Kelman 2000.) People and Acknowledgements. The project team was: Robin Spence (Principal Investigator, PhD Supervisor) The project was part of the covering registration application form Cambridge University Centre for Risk in the Built Environment (CURBE) as a joint endeavour between the Martin Centre (Department of thomas hardy questions, Architecture) and the Cambridge Coastal Research Unit (Department of rubric essay grade, Geography). The entire project was kindly sponsored by thomas questions, Halifax General Insurance Services Limited. Gratitude is also extended to others who provided further financial support: Cambridge Commonwealth Trust. Scandinavian Studies Fund. Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd.
Darwin College Travel Fund. Special thanks to the numerous people on this planet who provided much-needed sources, guidance, and advice along with the on college researchers and practitioners whose work preceded this project. Several extreme weather events have caused large-scale losses across the U.K. Examples include the windstorm during the Christmas and New Year period in thomas hardy essay, 1997/98, the article summary floods along inland rivers in central England in thomas essay questions, April 1998, and article summary, the storms and inland floods across the thomas essay U.K. between October 2000 and February 2001. Each of these events caused several fatalities, damaged hundreds of millions of pounds worth of property, and caused severe disruption to society. History illustrates that many more severe events have occurred in the past and the current state of rapid, global climate change is expected to produce more severe and more frequent extreme events in the future. Yalding, Kent in southeast England was inundated in tender is the, autumn 2000. (Copyright I lan Kelman 2000.) The east coast of England is particularly vulnerable to storm surge flood events exacerbated by sea-level rise and large-scale land subsidence. East coast storm surges have been extremely devastating in hardy essay questions, the past, such as the events of paper analysis, 31 January to 1 February 1953 which killed more than 300 people in the U.K.
Sea defences in eastern England were raised and strengthened after the 1953 event, but they are nearing the thomas hardy essay questions end of write research analysis, their 50-year lifetime. Partly due to the feeling of thomas questions, being protected by these sea defences, coastal development in England has been rapid. The number of people and the value of property highly vulnerable to a major storm surge event in eastern England is far greater than in research analysis, 1953. A recent development of bungalows with an ironic name sited just behind the thomas essay sea defences near Trusthorpe between Maplethorpe and Skegness in eastern England. (Copyright I lan Kelman 2000.) This study contributed to paper the understanding of risks to the built environment from natural hazards by assessing the vulnerability of residential buildings to thomas hardy essay questions the hazards associated with a major North Sea storm surge. By combining detailed analysis of the buildings in on college, specific case study sites with sophisticated hydrodynamic modelling of hardy, potential storm surge events, the research identified features which determine the vulnerability of residential dwellings to rubric literary essay grade 8 flood damage. Risk management strategies were proposed and essay, decision-making tools were developed. Case Study Sites. Case study site selection focused on urban sites vulnerable to flooding in coastal, eastern England. Criteria considered included the article summary hydrodynamic environment, the residential building characteristics, the availability of required data, and the disaster history of the location.
The sites chosen were: Kingston-upon-Hull , Humberside. A shallow estuary with a large tidal range, susceptible to flooding from the Humber Estuary and thomas, the River Hull. Canvey Island , Essex. Article Summary? An extremely flat and low-lying island site with many residential areas lying approximately 3 m below the mean high water level.
Map indicating the case study sites' locations. Storm Surge Modelling. (Text and work by James Brown) The research at the Cambridge Coastal Research Unit (CCRU) developed an integrated modelling strategy for the investigation of the thomas hardy essay physical susceptibility of each case study site to flooding. The model considered the combined effects of astronomical tide, storm surge, wind-wave processes, non-linear interactions and the physical environment of the coastal zone and is capable of representing both the generation of a flood wave and its propagation inland. Flood scenarios were developed for a wide range of meteorological events. Previous attempts to theme b research model coastal flooding have either employed a complex (dynamical) representation of the storm surge with no explicit representation of flooding and drying (operational Storm Surge Models (SSM)) or a dynamical representation of flooding with a simple (statistical) representation of the storm surge (e.g. insurance industry models). Both of these approaches have significant disadvantages. In particular, although operational SSM have provided some useful data on sea state conditions for flood warning and coastal engineering, they remain unsuitable for questions, storm impact studies, which require detailed information about the flood depths and velocities that are likely to be experienced inland.
In contrast, while insurance industry models have been designed specifically to predict flood losses in essay grade 6 7 8, the coastal zone, they have, at best, not been able to fully capture the complex hydrodynamic processes that operate during a storm surge and, at worst, completely ignored the important role of dynamical interactions between floodplain boundary conditions and hardy essay, flow characteristics in determining the propagation of a flood wave. Paper Analysis? This study focused on circumventing the thomas essay questions problems inherent in these traditional approaches, by employing an integrated (linked) modelling strategy, whereby each component of the essays application physical system (storm surge, defence breaches, flood wave) is resolved with an appropriate (numerical or statistical) model. Output of water depths from a simulated 200-metre sea defence breach in the north of Canvey Island. (Produced by James Brown 2002.) This study demonstrates that significant improvements could and should be made in the manner in which society manages its risk to essay questions natural disasters. The focus is on on college managing the physical vulnerability of hardy questions, residences (houses and flats) to flood disasters in coastal, eastern England. To complement the extensive knowledge of damage from slow-rise flood depth, this study examines the lateral pressure from flood depth differential between the inside and outside of a residence and flood velocity. To determine the impacts on residences in tender night, coastal, eastern England, Canvey Island on the Thames Estuary and Kingston-upon-Hull on the Humber Estuary were selected as case study sites.
Field surveys determined characteristics of the thomas questions physical vulnerability of residences in these locations to floods. A first-order analysis indicated the failure modes of most prominent concern to be analysed in essays application, detail: The rate of rise of flood water inside a residence, to establish that pressure differentials could damage the residence. Analysis of glass failure, focused on large, low units in doors. Analysis of wall failure, focused on cavity walls of unreinforced masonry. The observations and thomas hardy essay, calculations were applied to developing a new form of vulnerability profiling: two-dimensional vulnerability matrices with flood depth differential along one axis, flood velocity along the other axis, and the matrix cells displaying a damage outcome. The vulnerability matrices were used to illustrate possible disaster management tools.
The loss equivalent percentage method of describing quantitative risk was presented for simulated storm surge scenarios on Canvey Island. Qualitative decision-making tools and analysis strategies for residence flood vulnerability management were also discussed. The results apply specifically to write research modern residences in England because those were the thomas hardy essay questions residences observed in the field surveys. Grade 6 7? The techniques and hardy essay questions, methods nevertheless could be used for similar analyses for other locations, other residence types, and other disasters. This study provides new knowledge and methods which contribute to understanding, describing, and managing society’s risk to natural disasters.
Water flowing through a hole in the masonry wall of the tender night essays flooded wine cellar at Darwin College, Cambridge, U.K. See Chapter 8 Flood Rise Rate Inside a Residence. (Copyright I lan Kelman 2001.) Download a summary with the title page, abstract, and table of contents (8 pages): Download an extended summary with a section for each chapter and sample results (22 pages): Download the entire dissertation (324 pages): Brickwork wall broken from behind by flood water in Malton, U.K. See Chapter 9 Wall Failure.
(Copyright I lan Kelman 2000.) Chapter 1: Coastal Settlements at thomas hardy essay, Risk. An excellent history of storm surges in eastern England is given by the paper: Zong, Y. and M.J. Tooley. 2003. A Historical [sic] Record of Coastal Floods in Britain: Frequencies and Associated Storm Tracks.
Natural Hazards , vol. 29, issue 1 (May), pp. 13-36. Table II A in this paper does not mention the 11-12 January 1978 storm surge in Eastern England (see the photograph below) even though this event is mentioned in Table II B for the South and Southwest Coasts of England. Plaques on St. Margaret's Church, King's Lynn, Norfolk indicating water levels from floods. Article Summary? The 1978 storm surge flood level was higher then the 1953 level, although the 1978 event was neither as destructive nor as lethal as the 1953 event. (Copyright I lan Kelman 1999.)
Chapter 3: Flood Actions on Residences. A revised version of this chapter has been published as: Kelman, I and R. Spence. Hardy? 2004. An Overview of Flood Actions on Buildings. Covering Subscriber Registration? Engineering Geology , vol. 73, issues 3-4 (June) pp. 297–309. Chapter 8: Flood Rise Rate Inside a Residence. Commentary by hardy essay, I lan Kelman on rubric essay grade 4 January 2004 and updated on 12 March 2004 : C: coefficient for essay questions, the power law in crack flow [m 3 s -1 Pa -n per m, per m 2 , or as is theme for english depending on residence component being considered] The equation C water = C air (rho air / rho water ) n is not theoretically justifiable, although it is thomas hardy questions still a reasonable first-order approximation.
The qualitative results, relative rankings, and overall conclusions of this chapter do not change, the quantitative results need to be revised. A theoretically-justifiable equation to convert C air into tender night, C water cannot be determined. A useful approximation would be to assume laminar flow, rather than transitional flow, yielding C water = C air (rho air / rho water ) n (nu air / nu water ) 2n-1 where n = 2/3. This approach does not immediately apply to all types of cracks in buildings through which floodwater would flow, yet further analysis indicates that it is thomas hardy essay acceptably valid for all cracks for first-order calculations. Although neither existing theory nor reported experiments perfectly explain floodwater crack flow nor entirely justify this suggested procedure, this approach is literary grade 6 7 8 a helpful beginning. With thanks to Allan McRobie, Roger Nokes, and Robin Spence.
The responsibility for any errors or misunderstandings remains with me. Chapter 9: Wall Failure. A revised version of thomas essay questions, this chapter has been published as: Kelman, I . and R. Spence. 2003. A Limit Analysis of Unreinforced Masonry Failing Under Flood Water Pressures. Masonry International , vol. 16, no.
2 (Summer/May), pp. 51-61, abstract (35 kb in PDF) and full text (3,770 kb in article summary, PDF). Chapter 11: Flood Failure Flowchart. A revised version of this chapter has been published as: Kelman, I and hardy essay questions, R. Spence. Write Research Paper Analysis? 2003. A Flood Failure Flowchart for Buildings. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers--Municipal Engineer , vol.
156, issue ME3, pp. 207-214. This paper was awarded the James Hill Prize for the best paper published in the journal that year. Chapter 13: Analysis and Application. The decision-making systems in thomas hardy questions, Section 13.4 are described and lessons from essays them are expanded and placed into context in two publications: Kelman, I . 2007. Decision-making for Flood-threatened Properties. Chapter 1, pp. 3-19 in S. Begum, M. Stive, and J. Hall (eds.), Flood Risk Management in Europe: Innovation in Policy and Practice , vol. 25 of the book series on Advances in Natural and essay questions, Technological Hazards Research, Springer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, abstract (16 kb in PDF).
nbspnbspnbspnbspnbsp When a flood threatens an existing property such as a dwelling or business, the owner must decide what action to night take to minimise the dangers, damage, and thomas hardy, inconvenience. Covering With Subscriber Registration? Extensive material is available related to options for managing the flood vulnerability of individual properties before, during, and after floods. These sources offer comprehensive information on hardy essay the possibilities which exist but rarely develop tools for essays, determining which option might be the most appropriate in given circumstances. nbspnbspnbspnbspnbsp This chapter discusses the thomas need for, and provides some simple tools for, understanding decision-making for night essays, flood-threatened properties. The focus is on individual properties which might be threatened by floodwater, imminently (existing properties) or in questions, the future (existing or planned properties). The decisions addressed are: -Emphasising dry or wet flood resistance: to seal or not to seal an individual property? -Reducing recovery duration: should property components be removed from the property before the for english paper flood, replaced after the thomas essay questions flood, or dried and tender, cleaned after the flood?
-Implementing resilient reinstatement: resilient reinstatement should be a social, not property-orientated, solution. Then, the implications for the wider community context are elaborated. nbspnbspnbspnbspnbsp The U.K. is hardy essay used as the main case study. The discussion helps to consolidate available information in analysis, order to produce useful analytical approaches which any property owner could use. The key is to thomas hardy essay questions make each property owner their own expert rather than forcing them to rely on letter registration form experts. Kelman, I . 2003. To seal or not to seal: Do human and physical geographies conflict in flood management for individual properties?. Research paper presentation in the session Geographical Solutions to Flooding Problems in the U.K. Thomas Essay Questions? (convener Andrew Black) at Geography, Serving Society and the Environment , International Annual Conference 2003 of the RGS-IBG (Royal Geographical Society and The Institute of British Geographers), London, U.K., 3-5 September. nbspnbspnbspnbspnbsp When floodwater appears likely to reach an individual property, the occupier’s tendency is to attempt to seal the property to keep the water out.
Engineering analyses of wall strength under floodwater loading were completed for modern residences in England assuming that a property is completely sealed. Theme B Research Paper? The results show that severe structural damage might occur when only 1.0-1.5 metres of water has risen outside a property. nbspnbspnbspnbspnbsp Protecting a property against such structural failure has more challenges than protecting a property from severe damage caused by floodwater entering the property. Therefore, the decision to hardy seal or not to seal is influenced by the expected final level of the flood. Theme For English Paper? An analysis of this decision-making dilemma indicates that, on thomas questions a physical basis, increasing a residence’s internal flood resistance and always permitting water to enter the article summary residence could often be the most appropriate solution. nbspnbspnbspnbspnbsp Whether or not occupants would accept floodwater entering their residence, and would adapt their lifestyle and properties to make this option sustainable, is a difficult sociological question. The human reaction potentially conflicts with the physical analysis. Admitting the thomas hardy essay questions strengths and weaknesses on both sides would assist in reconciling them.
Commentary by I lan Kelman on 6 September 2003 : This research was reported in The Guardian by Paul Brown, 6 September 2003, page 13, and in The Telegraph by Graham Tibbetts, 6 September 2003, page 4. Thank you to both reporters for the time they spent discussing my work with me and for their articles which highlight the important issues arising from this research. The Chiswell example mentioned in both articles came from work done by article summary, James Lewis. Details are in: Lewis, J. 1999. Hardy? Development in Disaster-prone Places: Studies of Vulnerability . Intermediate Technology Publications, London, U.K. Lewis, J. 1983. Change and with subscriber form, Vulnerability to Natural Hazard: Chiswell, Dorset. The Environmentalist , vol. 3, no.
4, pp. 277-287. Lewis, J. 1979. Vulnerability to a Natural Hazard: Geomorphic, Technological and Social Change at Chiswell, Dorset , Natural Hazards Research Working Paper 37, Natural Hazards Center, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A., full text (1,287 kb in PDF). Chiswell, Isle of Portland, Dorset. (Copyright I lan Kelman 2003.) Another point of clarification is that the thomas structural collapses in the 1952 Lynmouth flood were likely influenced by debris, mainly boulders and rocks, and theme paper, waves from the flow. Quickly-rising and fast-flowing floodwater probably contributed, but a combination of essay, factors tends to lead to building collapse, particularly in an event as complex as the 1952 Lynmouth flood. Different structures might have experienced similar damage from different factors. I would further like to emphasise that my work does not recommend to homeowners what they should do. Instead, it provides a way of write, thinking about the problem and of making decisions which factor in issues and concerns that have not before been properly addressed.
Homeowners should inform themselves of the issues and thomas essay questions, make their own decisions, irrespective of what so-called experts such as myself state. For the rubric literary essay grade U.K., the Environment Agency and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency are excellent sources of information and advice. Surfing their websites and phoning their Floodline at 0845-988-1188 is thomas hardy questions recommended as an immediate starting point--but only essays on college, as a starting point. The National Flood Forum is also highly recommended as an excellent source of assistance and support (see Gill Holland's commentary immediately after this one). Do not wait until a flood threatens and thomas essay, ensure that you collect information from many sources so that you become the expert.
For example, sandbags have advantages, such as filtering out contaminants in floodwater. Sandbags, though, also have many disadvantages, such as disposal--particularly if the floodwater is literary essay grade contaminated--and their weight and availability. This research suggests neither avoidance nor usage of sandbags. Rather, it indicates that each homeowner should investigate the advantages, disadvantages, and essay, alternatives and make their own decisions about how to tender is the night essays deal with floodwater. When making these individual decisions, care should be taken because one homeowner's decision can affect many other people. Ideally, long before a flood threatens, a community should get together, investigate the issues, discuss the possibilities, and make community-wide decisions. Thus, in the last-minute rush as floodwaters rise, neighbours can assist those who need help and conflicts will be minimised.
In fact, this proactive, community, preparedness approach should be taken not only for hardy essay questions, floods, but for all potential community vulnerabilities including other natural hazard risks, crime, fire, traffic, and domestic violence. The concern is not simply minimising damage to individual properties from floodwater, but building and literary essay grade 8, maintaining sustainable communities. Living in a society entails responsibilities to that society and making individual decisions which are good for both the individual and the community. Sandbags are not a panacea, but might assist, as shown during floods in Cambridge, U.K. in 2001. Here, the sandbag barrier was complemented by pumps and trained personnel on-site for over 50 hours until the river's level diminished. (Copyright I lan Kelman 2001.) Commentary by Gill Holland from the National Flood Forum on 9 November 2003 : For me, it's simple. I've seen familiar houses flooded, some of them frequently, admittedly only by water that rises gently through the essay questions floor as the write research paper analysis whole river valley fills with water. In these conditions, it's virtually impossible to keep the water out of the essay house.
The water will stand against the walls and under the tender night essays floor for three, four, or five days. It's a good idea to keep the dirty water at bay with a piece of thick plywood, so that what's in the house is thomas hardy filtered through the walls and floor and is relatively clean. Using a pump is probably the only way you can damage your house (or your neighbour's) structurally in these circumstances. Rubric Essay Grade 8? I've only thomas hardy essay, found one house in the town that was waterproof. Essays? The lowest houses in Bewdley have been flooded over thomas essay fifty times since 1923.
They've probably gone through a good number of doors, skirtings and bottom steps of the staircase, which are the bits that go but otherwise they don't seem too bad. Obviously having water in your house doesn't do you any good--clearing things out of its way and cleaning up afterwards takes a lot of time and effort--but I haven't seen any major damage done by letting the article summary floodwater in, given that you've adapted to that scenario. Plugs are just as convenient at waist or even chest height--better with small children or old people around. Plastic kitchen units with detachable doors are very much the same as the normal MDF units, or you can use solid wood as long as it's very well sealed all the way round, and that goes for skirtings and thomas hardy, doors as well. The damage and expense is caused by the insurance company contractors ripping the gypsum plaster off the walls, which makes the place uninhabitable. Houses in Bewdley tended to article summary have render on the walls instead, sometimes with a rail and then conventional plaster above. They had quarry tiles or paviours on the floors with the result that the walls and floors dried out thomas hardy essay questions gently with the occupants still using the rooms. I was entertained to find someone at a flood fair in Huntingdon who talked about trying to keep the water out of his cottage by pumping. The floor he described was obviously of tiles laid directly onto the soil where the water comes up through the floor and recedes that way too. He said that as they started to pump the water out the write paper walls started to bow, so they stopped.
On further questioning it turned out that it was a cruck house still with the original wattle and daub walls. All the research projects that I've been contributing to have put all the emphasis on keeping the thomas essay water out. Yes, I think it's psychologically very difficult for letter with subscriber registration, people to accept that you should let the water in, and the instinct is to try harder and harder to keep the water out. Questions? At every meeting I say you're not looking at paper, it from the right angle, but I'm always the only one taking that line. Tales From the River Bank , giving practical advice on preparing and recovering from questions a flood, by Fran Parry who has survived three floods in subscriber registration form, ten years (16 kb in Rich Text Format). This project suggested methods for integrated strategies for modelling the physical vulnerability of thomas hardy essay questions, coastal settlements to storm surge flooding. With the understanding of the losses which could occur for a given event, decision-making techniques for flood management and vulnerability management were suggested and the uncertainties in outputs were analysed. For further published results and extensions from analysis this work, see Publications on flood issues. Apparent capillary rise in hardy essay questions, a flooded house in Keighley, U.K. See Chapter 3 Flood Actions.
(Copyright I lan Kelman 2000.) The material on this website is provided for information only. Neither definitive advice nor recommendations are implied. Each person or organisation accessing the website is responsible for making their own assessment of the topics discussed and are strongly advised to verify all information. No liability will be accepted for loss or damage incurred as a result of using the material on essays this website.
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analysing essay You’ve been staring at your blank computer screen for what feels like hours, trying to figure out how to start your analytical essay. You try to choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into the meat of it. But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. What you need is is a blueprint—a foolproof way to hardy essay get your essay structured. Then all you have to do is fill in the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. On College Application? What an Analytical Essay Is—And What It Isn’t. Helpful, right?
Um, not so much. First, it might be more useful to explain what an analytical essay isn’t before getting to hardy essay questions what it is . An analytical essay isn’t a summary. Though this may seem obvious in night theory, it’s more difficult in practice. If you read your essay and it sounds a lot like a book report, it’s probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to figure out essay, if you’re summarizing instead of analyzing is to look at your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point?
Okay, so what is an analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, it’s writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary. Analytical essays usually concentrate on research analysis how the book or poem was written—for example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to hardy a poem. With Form? In short, this type of essay requires you to look at the smaller parts of the work to help shed light on the larger picture. An example of questions, a prompt—and the example I’m going to use for the rest of this post—could be something like: Analyze the theme of is the essays, sacrifice in essay questions the Harry Potter series. (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on reading the books has done so already—or at is the essays least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline. There are quite a few ways to essay organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to write it, your essay should always have three main parts: I’ll get into essay, the nitty-gritty of this soon, but for thomas hardy essay, all you visual learners, here is a nice representation of all the components that make a great analytical essay outline. You can see that I’ve added a few more details than just the introduction, body, and covering with subscriber application, conclusion. But hold your horses—we’re getting to those parts right now. Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline. Thomas Hardy Essay? The purpose of your introduction is to get the reader interested in your analysis. The introduction should include at least three things—a hook, your thesis statement, and a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement.
1. You gotta hook ‘em from the analysis start. The first part of your introduction should draw the thomas essay reader in. This is on college application called the hook. The hook should be interesting or surprising. You can achieve this by asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement that’s unusual or controversial. Thomas Essay Questions? For my Harry Potter example, I might say, “Since the essays publication of the first book in hardy essay questions the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the books for promoting witchcraft. However, one of the theme paper main themes of the books draws inspiration from Christianity itself—that of hardy essay questions, sacrifice.”
Okay, so that’s two sentences. Rubric 6 7? But it’s got a little bit of controversy and relates to what the rest of the thomas essay questions essay will discuss. 2. Get to the good stuff—write a killer thesis statement. Okay, so now that you’ve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to the point. This is where the article summary thesis statement comes in. My thesis might be, “The theme of sacrifice is prevalent throughout the series and is embodied as sacrifice for the greater good, sacrifice for an ultimate gain, and sacrifice to keep a promise.” 3. It’s time to hardy questions back up your thesis. Let the reader know how you’re going to prove your claim. For my example, I would let the write research paper analysis reader know that I intend to thomas hardy essay questions analyze the instances of Harry’s “death,” Voldemort’s sacrifice of his soul in exchange for immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in order to honor a promise made to Lily Potter.
These points will be the building blocks of the body paragraphs. Theme For English? Body of hardy questions, Your Analytical Essay Outline. Tender Night Essays? The body is where you can start to get really creative and play around with formatting. In the questions flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But that’s because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you want—as long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of claims, evidence to article summary support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to thomas the topic sentence. Again, three is not necessarily a magic number here. You could make one claim with a lot of evidence, or five claims to support your topic sentence. But let’s get into it, shall we? 1. Essays Application? Develop a strong topic sentence.
Each topic sentence in each body paragraph of thomas hardy essay, your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is going to be about. My first body paragraph might start with, “Harry Potter is willing to fulfill prophecy and make the rubric literary essay 6 7 ultimate sacrifice—that of his life—in order to save the rest of the essay wizarding world.” 2. Make your claim. The claim should dive into a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claims—that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of covering letter with application, profound significance. 3. Thomas Hardy Essay Questions? Provide evidence from the text to back your claim.
You can’t just go around making claims without any support. Research Analysis? You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the thomas text to add evidence. For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the instance in the hall of prophecies with the on college application quote, “and either must die at the hand of the thomas hardy other for neither can live while the other survives.” 4. Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. You have to make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence. Write Paper? If you don’t, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. For example, with the citing of the thomas hardy essay questions prophecy, I would tell the essays reader that Harry and his friends found said prophecy and figured out that it had to thomas essay be about him (although there are objections that it could’ve been referring to Neville, but we’ll leave that out of this example).
They knew that either Voldemort had to die or Harry did, and essay grade, he had to thomas hardy questions be willing to do that. They’re not needed in the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. This will help your essay flow. Conclusion of theme b research, Your Analytical Essay Outline. After you’ve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to back your claims, and essay questions, tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, you’re ready to article summary wrap it all up. The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy. For example, “There are many motivations behind sacrifice—to help others, to help oneself, or to keep a promise to a loved one—and J.K. Rowling explores several of them through the characters in the Harry Potter book series.” This, of course, does not suffice as a full conclusion.
To fill it out and give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the text or the author. Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide. Easy, right? I know you’re pumped to get started, but before you do, I have a template for the analytical essay outline for you to download. Thomas Hardy Questions? Of course, your instructor’s directions will trump mine, so if they say to article summary do something a specific way, I won’t be offended if you take their advice over mine. And don’t forget about the Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is essay questions all typed up, they can help you make sure that it’s as good as it can get. Psst. 98% of rubric 6 7, Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author.
Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. awesome! Glad you liked it. #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot! Happy to thomas essay questions help. Is The Night? #128578; Thanks for the comment. This is undoubtedly very much helpful#8230; Thanks a lot. You#8217;re welcome!
Thanks for the comment and thomas hardy essay, thanks for reading. Theme B Research Paper? #128578; Hi#8230;.Eden thank you for orienting me on how to structure an hardy, analytical essay. Essays Application? because of many reasons which i don#8217;t like to name writing an analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill. Your effort in writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned. I look forward to your reply on the question of structuring of analytical political essay on issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Thank you for your kind words. In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on the course and the requirements of your instructor. However, you can follow the thomas same advice in this post.
Introduction with a hook and thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to support those claims, and a conclusion that wraps it all up. The main difference is that you#8217;ll have to do more research than reading just one book. Essays On College Application? (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the finally got this one. Sweet! Glad you found it helpful. hi this is great.
Fabulous! Happy to help. How would I write an analytic essay using dramatic conventions? I#8217;m supposed to write an essay on hardy The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and I#8217;m not doing so well at tender is the understanding how to thomas questions do it. basically it#8217;s also asking me #8220;how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in a certain way. Research Paper Analysis? Please respond to this if you can. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the dramatic conventions that you#8217;re covering in thomas hardy your paper. For instance, in one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of registration, soliloquy, the play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the first three conventions I thought of #8212; I#8217;m not sure which ones you#8217;ve studied in class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of these topics and their influence on how the hardy questions audience views the characters. I hope this puts you on the right track!
I have two write an essay about with subscriber application form, Animals by O#8217;Hara and how it reflects the innocence and simplicity of childhood. I don#8217;t know how to start. Could anyone suggest the essay questions first sentence of the rubric grade introduction? I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. You might want to start with the quintessential quote from the text that stands out hardy essay, as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity. For more great hook sentence tips visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ This is amazing and extremely helpful! Thank you author. Hey, thanks for reading and for the nice comment! I#8217;ll be sure to show the author. #128578; do you eat pussy? Haha!
Awesome. We#8217;re happy to help, but don#8217;t sell yourself short just because of your blonde hair. #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. dont take this as offensive but im just trying to improve this site that is all. Thanks for write research paper analysis, keeping us on our toes, Shayan! No offense taken #8212; we#8217;ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here https://goo.gl/nlOqzY. Thomas Questions? Hi there! Although this was really helpful for literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an idea as to how to apply this to 6 7 8 historical analysis. I have to write about the hardy questions effects of European migration, warfare, and disease on Native Americans, and was thinking of essay grade, finding 3 specific examples of each and explaining the effect that each had on Native Americans.
Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to each of your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs. Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of your 3-paragraph sections to keep your paper organized. Thomas Questions? DIOS MIO! this is really helpful. Woot! That#8217;s awesome. So happy you found this post helpful. Article Summary? #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. This is so helpful, thank you. Hardy Essay Questions? I have to write an analytical essay about The Killer Angels by on college Michael Shaara and hardy essay, I#8217;m stuck. This is my second essay and on the first I received a C #128577; I don#8217;t know how to start and it isn#8217;t even about the whole book, its only for half the book.
Please help. Starting is definitely the essays hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for your blog. you have made it very easy for me to understand this (horrible) essay. I have to write my first Analytical essay. kind regards to you. And thanks to you for reading! Good luck with your essay #8212; you#8217;ve got this. I have to write an analytical essay for my college English course, and its about an American folk song called #8220;Frankie and Johnny#8221; and im stuck in how to begin it! my professor gave me an hardy questions, example on how to start, she said #8220;to summarize a short definition of North American folk music from Oxford Music Online#8221; please help. A definition is article summary one way to start your essay, sure! This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for 14 hook types + examples in the bottom right corner): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf. NAH MEAN.
Thank you so much. I was dying a moment ago. Now I think I can manage it. love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for reading #128578; I feel motivated and thomas essay questions, have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for everything. Rubric Literary 6 7 8? )
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color pulse essayer This is a division, of application Ser. Thomas Hardy Questions! No. 05/559,295, filed Mar. 17, 1975, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,078,606.
A multi-color, multi-pulse laser operating at a number of essays on college, wavelengths is provided with a like number of cavities to produce a like number of thomas questions, output pulses from letter subscriber registration a single pumping pulse. The spacing between the pulses is easily controlled by controlling the timing of Q-switches, each in thomas essay a different cavity, so that information is imparted by the pulse spacing. In a two color embodiment, a beam splitting device is positioned along the longitudinal axis of the laser medium to produce two beams which are directed into different cavity resonators, each tuned to a different wavelength. Reflecting surfaces positioned at the end of each cavity redirect each beam back to the beam splitting device where the beams are spatially recombined and subsequently two pulses, one of one color and essays, the other of the second color, are sequentially coupled out of the essay questions, laser system. Subscriber Registration Application Form! The colors may be sufficiently close in wavelength such that detection does not discriminate against hardy, the two colors, and a double pulse output is obtained at the detector. In this manner, the laser system produces two output pulses from a single laser medium and write paper analysis, a single pumping pulse.
The pulse width of each of the hardy questions, pulses may also be controlled by pulse stretching means in one or more of the optical paths. FIELD OF THE INVENTION. This invention relates to laser systems, and more particularly to subscriber registration, a laser system for providing a multiple light-pulse output in which interpulse spacing and/or pulse width are independently controlled for laser target designation. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. In military operations involving the designating and destroying of a target, laser systems are used to hardy essay, illuminate a target. This light is reradiated in all directions by the target and is used by a missile for homing in on the target.
In one type of research analysis, system, targets are designated by illuminating the target with a train of laser pulses from a particular laser, with the thomas hardy questions, pulses having a predetermined interpulse spacing. Application! A typical method of countermeasuring this laser target illumination is by hardy essay detecting the pulses at the target, determining their pulse repetition frequency (PRF) or pulse interval modulation (PIM) and producing like laser pulses which are aimed at a reflective object removed from the target. In an literary essay effort to prevent the countermeasuring of the hardy essay, illuminating laser, the subject invention involves a new type laser which is write, modulated to produce pulse pairs or doublets which cannot be easily detected and reproduced by the target. In order to be effective the interpulse spacing between the pulses of the doublet must be small and thomas essay, the spacing must be very accurate since it is extremely difficult to detect the fact that the laser radiation is pulsed when pulse spacings are very small. Moreover, even if the double laser pulses are detected, it is extremely difficult to generate like laser pulses because it is article summary, difficult to duplicate exactly the small interpulse spacings. Therefore the combatants who have apparatus for essay questions producing double pulse laser beams with extremely short accurately controlled interpulse spacings will have a virtually uncountermeasurable system.
This tactical situation thus requires a laser capable of varying interpulse spacing down to zero with extreme accuracy of interpulse spacing. Moreover, this tactical situation requires that pulse spacing be easily varied so that the illuminating laser can quickly change its output waveform to avoid detection. Easy variability of pulse spacings has not been easily accomplished in the past. Moreover, the reduction of pulse spacing down to zero is not possible with double pumping of the laser rod. In the prior art, techniques for for english obtaining multiple output pulses can be divided into two classes; (1) systems in which the thomas, separation between pulses is article summary, directly proportional to the time required to restore the population inversion in the lasing medium and (2) those system which are independent of the restoration time of the lasing medium. Systems which are dependent on the population inversion include multiple pump, repetitive Q-switching and mode control systems. An example of the multiple pump system is illustrated in thomas essay U.S.
Pat. No. 3,783,403. In this system double pulses are produced from on college a single laser by generating two successive optical pumping pulses. Questions! However, pulse spacing cannot be decreased to zero in this system. An example of a laser system which is independent of the restoration time is essays on college application, described in an article by essay questions M. J. Essays On College Application! Landry, entitled “Variably Spaced Giant Pulses for Multiple Laser Cavities In a Single Lasing Medium”, Applied Physics Letter, Vol. 18, pages 494-496. In this method, a prism is used to thomas hardy, effectively split the laser rod longitudinally into essays application two rods.
This requires a rod of relatively large cross section. Thomas Hardy! The prism divides the beams and then each of the separated beams is independently controlled through individual Q-switches. However, in the Landry system only one wavelength or color is utilized and the stress birefringent effect to be described hereinafter is rubric 6 7 8, not used. The subject laser in thomas hardy essay one embodiment is one which lases in two or more wavelengths. The colors result from essay grade 6 7 8 radiative transitions which can occur in two different ways: (1) from a single high energy level to multiple different lower energy levels or (2) from multiple different upper energy levels to a single low energy level. It is also possible to thomas essay questions, get different colors from multiple different upper energy levels to multiple different lower energy levels. The situation will be discussed later in connection with Er:YLF lasers.
In the subject invention the two colors are split out into different cavities, each containing a Q-switch. The Q-switches are activated sequentially with a predetermined delay such that light of one color is coupled back through the on college, laser rod to produce a first pulse, while the activation of the second Q-switch couples light of the other color back through the laser rod to hardy essay, produce a second pulse. Pulse spacing is controlled by the delay in activation of the second Q-switch. For transitions of the second type (and the third type) the first pulse does not completely depopulate the rod because there are electrons at the second energy level available for the second pulse. This sytem is useable with ruby rods and is the essays, some Nd:YLF rods. When, however, there are two transitions both starting from the same excited level, stress birefringence induced by the pumping of the rod may play a major part in thomas hardy questions permitting the production of two pulses. When two transitions start from the same excited level, it is possible that the production of the first pulse will completely depopulate the is the, laser rod making two pulse production impossible. In some instances this can be prevented by very rapid Q-switching. However, stress birefringence provides simpler, more effective way of preventing complete depopulation during the production of the first pulse. Stress birefringence occurs because some of the energy pumped into the laser rod is converted to essay questions, heat which changes the characteristics of the rod such that two beams are produced each having a different polarization.
In a two color laser stress birefringence results in the two colors being emitted with different polarizations. When the beams are separated into two differently polarized beams by a polarizing beam splitter then one polarized beam only analysis partially depopulates the rod for the first pulse, thereby leaving enough of a population inversion for the formation of the hardy essay questions, second pulse. The Q-switching of the second cavity then can couple the remaining energy out of the rod to produce the article summary, second pulse. It is a finding of the present invention that stress birefringence when the laser is thomas questions, pumped produces beams having orthogonal polarizations. The beams are separated according to polarization and each are Q-switched at different times to produce multiple pulses. Is The Essays! The multiple pulses are thus produced from a single population inversion which is the result of one pumping pulse. Each polarity beam selectively depopulates the laser host material so that only a portion of the essay, rod population is depopulated with each polarization to enable the production of two pulses when the Q-switching turn on is not rapid enough. The major problem with most known double pulse laser systems is the literary grade, inability to hardy essay questions, accurately decrease interpulse spacing to zero. While, as explained later, very small pulse spacings may not be necessary in such fields as double exposure holography, the ability to for english b research, achieve very small pulse spacings is extremely important in the fields of communications for increased bandwidth and in thomas essay questions military target designation, where laser beams having extremely small pulse spacings are required. With respect to applications of multiple pulse lasers, as stated in the above mentioned patent the double pulse out put may be used in double exposure holography in which two holograms are formed in rapid succession to detect any small disturbance occuring in the time between the two pulses. Double exposure holography is described in U.S.
Pat. No. Theme For English Paper! 3,715,164 in thomas hardy essay questions which small disturbances of the subject are detected as the difference between the letter subscriber application, two holograms formed. In the case of hardy, double exposure holography the two pulses are responsible for forming two successive holograms, with the pulse spacing providing the time internal between the two exposures. While spacing between the pulses may not be critical in this application, it is important that the spacing be conveniently controlled. The spacing between the two pulses is, however, critical when the spacing is to convey information or intelligence.
Intelligence can be conveyed by the laser beam in the form of the coding of pulses in a pulse train produced when the laser is turned on and off in a predetermined manner. In one embodiment the spacing between pulses provides the code, such that transmitted information can be read out of the beam by detecting pulse spacing of received laser pulses. For instance, an aircraft can convey its altitude to a ground station over article summary, a laser-powered optical link, with the pulse spacing indicating altitude or any other desired parameter. Moreover, in laser optical communications, when pulse spacing is essay, used as the modulation parameter, it is important that pulse spacing be easily controlled and varied down to zero for the packing of more information into a given time interval. Additionally, if the laser is used to illuminate an object, the object can be identified as the one illuminated by a given laser through the detection of the pulse spacing of the light reflected by the object.
For example, a laser producing pulses of a known spacing may be aimed at covering letter with form, a particular object which reflects the incoming radiation in all directions. If radiation from an object has this known pulse spacing then it is known that this object is the thomas, one at which the laser is aimed. Article Summary! Thus any reflective object may be singled out by illuminating it with laser pulses of a known spacing. In addition to pulse spacing it is oftentimes desirable that the laser illuminate an object for a considerable period of time. Thomas Hardy Essay! If one of the multiple pulses is write paper analysis, elongated then, in addition to pulse spacing, a multiple pulse laser can be used for illumination as well as the transfer of information. These two aspects, e.g. minimum pulse spacing and pulse elongation, are important when in a military environment a target is to be both illuminated by a laser and identified by pulse spacing. Thomas Questions! In this case laser radiation projected at the target is reflected by the target and is then detected.
A missile, bomb or other projectile can then be directed to the illuminated and essay 6 7 8, identified target. Thus in holography, optical communications and for certain military applications it is important to be able to produce double laser pulses and to control pulse spacing and pulse width. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The subject system provides these features by utilizing a laser which lases in at least two wavelengths. For purposes of discussion, only a two colored laser will be described, it being understood that the number of pulses produced depends on the number of wavelengths at which the laser material lases. The output pulse from the laser is hardy, separated into two differently colored collimated beams directed into two different cavities. Each of the two cavities is provided with a separate Q-switch. The actuation of the Q-switches is separated by a time interval or delay correlated to the information to tender, be transmitted, such that pulses from one cavity are reflected back through the beam splitter and out the laser prior to pulses from the other cavity. The time interval between the pulses is determined by the delay between actuation of the hardy questions, Q-switches and this can be very accurately controlled by control of the night essays, Q-switches and can be made infinitely small.
Moreover, multiple pulses are generated for a single optical pumping pulse. Thomas Hardy! Pulse stretching is accomplished by the interposition of a non-linear absorbing element in article summary the cavity which produces the pulse to be elongated. It will be appreciated that if the essay, two colors are sufficiently close, detection of the two pulses is relatively simple, since if the article summary, detector has a response characteristic broad enough to detect both wavelengths then a double pulse will appear at the output of the hardy, detector. Thus the detector “sees” both pulses even though they are of different colors or wavelengths. Further with respect to essays, the system described, coding of the multiple pulses can be accomplished not only by pulse spacing, but also by pulse width modulation. The pulse width of a laser pulse can be varied in thomas accordance with intelligence to be transmitted on the laser beam by providing the above mentioned non-linear element and by varying the input energy to the laser medium in accordance with the intelligence to be transmitted.
The laser beam coding is therefore not only a function of pulse spacing and color but also can be a function of pulse width. Thus the write research analysis, beam from the subject multi-color, multi-pulse laser system has at least three parameters which may be varied to convey a code or intelligence, e.g. color, pulse spacing and pulse width. This makes this laser system uniquely suitable for increased communication bandwidth applications as well as for all applications requiring great flexibility in the coding used. As to the advantages of the subject laser system in addition to pulse spacing and pulse width control there is an added advantage with respect to essay questions, the power requirements for the laser. While, as mentioned above, there exist multiple-pulse laser systems which either use multiple pumping or rapid Q-switching to produce multiple output pulses, the two color system described requires less input power for the same output power because waste energy in the form of fluorescence is recaptured. All multi-color lasers have multiple radiative decay paths corresponding to the different wavelengths. In the prior art it is theme for english, common to tune the laser for thomas hardy essay questions one transition, with the result that radiation from other possible transitions meanwhile undergoes fluorescence, e.g. non-coherent light, and this energy is lost. By producing multiple cavities, one for each transition, the energy which would normally result in fluorescence is essay grade 8, recaptured. Thus when the subject system is used for producing multiple pulses, all of the laser input energy is thomas hardy essay, utilized.
Moreover, in the case where a polarizing element is used to permit double pulse formation there is an added advantage. If as in the above mentioned Landry laser system a prism type beam splitting element is used, polarized light induced by birefringence is on college application, lost, because it is diverted off-axis by thomas hardy essay questions the polarizing optics. However, in the subject system, the light which normally would be diverted off-axis is instead diverted to a second cavity and is thus not lost, but is night essays, rather amplified in the cavity and directed out along the output axis of the hardy questions, laser. Thus less power is necessary when the two color two pulse system described herein is used. It will be appreciated that in general if the covering with subscriber registration application, pulses are overlapping, this invention can be considered one involving the generation of a multi-color coherent light beam. Hardy Essay Questions! Moreover, if the laser is to operate in the CW mode, the subject invention provides a multi-color CW laser. It is therefore an object of this invention to provide an improved double pulse laser system in which pulse spacing is easily controlled. It is another object of this invention to provide a multi-color laser, whether pulsed or not. It is a further object of this invention to provide a multiple pulse laser, with the number of cavities and pulses depending on the number of article summary, colored beam components generated as a result of a single optical pumping pulse. It is still further object of this invention to provide an improved method of essay, producing multiple monochromatic light pulses in which each pulse is of a different color and in which the spacing of covering letter with registration form, each pulse from an adjacent pulse is readily controlled.
It is yet another object of this invention to provide an improved laser system in which different colored light components from a laser medium are channeled into different cavities and in questions which each cavity is provided with a Q-switching device whose switching function is in timed relationship with the tender is the night essays, Q-switching devices in hardy questions other cavities thereby to produce a multiple pulse output from the laser. It is still a further object of article summary, this invention to provide a method of, and apparatus for, producing multiple monochromic pulses in which one of the pulses is elongated for illuminating an object. It is thomas hardy questions, yet another object of this invention to provide improved color separation for monochromatic light generated from different radiative decay transitions within a laser medium. It is still further object of this invention to article summary, provide a laser system in which intelligence is hardy essay, communicated by varying the tender, width of the laser pulse in accordance with the intelligence to be communicated. It is yet another object of this invention to provide a laser system and thomas questions, modulation which permits information to be read out as a function of color, pulse spacing or pulse width or any combination of same. It is for english, a still further object of this invention to provide an essay questions improved laser target designator. These and other objects of this invention will be better understood in connection with the following description in view of the appended drawings in which: BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating one embodiment of the on college application, multi-pulse multi-color laser system; FIGS.
2 a and 2 b are energy level diagrams illustrating possible radiative decay paths for two color lasers; FIG. 3 is a block diagram of the subject laser system in which birefringently induced polarization is utilized in multiple pulse generations; FIG. 4 is hardy, a block diagram illustrating a laser system in which a non-linear element is interposed between the laser medium and a Q-switch in the laser cavity, illustrating the change in pulse width with a change in night energy delivered to the laser medium; FIG. 5 is a graph illustrating the essay, relationship between input power and application, pulse width for the system illustrated in FIG.
4; FIG. Hardy Essay! 6 is a block diagram illustrating a multiple pulse laser system in which both pulse spacing and pulse width are controlled, also indicating the utilization of a polarizing element for more complete color separation in the system; and. FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate an article summary in-line embodiment of the subject invention. DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. Referring now to FIG. 1, one embodiment of the essay questions, subject laser system is illustrated in which laser transitions occur from article summary different energy levels to a single lower energy level as illustrated in hardy questions FIG. 2 a . This system utilizes a laser medium 10 energized by covering letter with subscriber registration a flash lamp 12 driven by a laser excitation driver 14 . Hardy Essay! Two partially overlapping and write paper analysis, orthogonally oriented laser cavities are defined by optical paths 15 , 16 and 17 . One cavity is defined as the optical path between mirrors 20 and 24 of FIG.
1, while a second cavity is defined by thomas questions the optical path between mirrors 20 and 26 . These cavities partially overlap along the optical path between mirror 20 and tender night, a beam splitting device 22 . Each cavity is tuned to a different wavelength (color) of the radiation from the laser medium such that one cavity is tuned to essay, a wavelength ? 1 , and the other tuned to a wavelength ? 2 . Optical path 15 defines the major optical axis of the system along which laser radiation is projected. At one end of on college, optical axis 15 mirror 20 is partially reflective at wavelengths ? 1 and ? 2 . Beam splitting device 22 is situated at an angle of 45° and is coated to thomas, transmit and covering with subscriber registration application form, reflect light at essay questions, the ? 1 and ? 2 wavelengths respectively. With respect to the present invention a laser cavity is one which is bounded by reflective means at each end, with the reflective means oriented to establish an optical path between them, the spacing between the reflective means being set so as to establish standing waves of electromagnetic energy at one particular wavelength in the cavity. The regions of the electromagnetic spectrum usually associated with laser radiation include the visible, the infrared and the ultraviolet regions. Article Summary! However, coherent radiation generated by stimulating emission from a laser rod or other medium can be achieved at thomas hardy essay questions, microwave frequencies with a maser utilizing a lasing medium of ruby and also in the X-ray region of the spectrum with a UV laser and multiple doubling steps. Essays On College Application! While it is convenient in describing the thomas essay, subject laser in article summary terms of “light” amplification, it will be understood that the term “light” as used herein includes all of the above regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Initially the beam from the laser medium carries light of thomas hardy, both wavelengths or colors. However, due to the length of the cavities and the coating of mirrors 24 and 26 , only article summary light of one color ends up propagating in a given cavity. Thus a beam of questions, wavelength ? 1 propagates along optical path 16 and a beam having a wavelength ? 2 propagates along optical path 17 . Mirror 24 has a coating which permits the theme for english b research paper, mirror to thomas essay, be reflective at wavelength ? 1 and is positioned at the end of optical path 16 and article summary, mirror 26 , reflective at wavelength ? 2 is positions at the end of optical path 17 . Interposed in optical path 16 is a Q-switch device 30 and interposed in thomas hardy essay questions optical path 17 is the second Q-switching device 30 . The laser excitation driver 14 drives a trigger generator 32 which actuates Q-switch 28 . Alternatively, the driver and trigger may be the same unit.
The output from trigger generator 32 is applied to a variable delay unit 34 which delays the trigger pulse from the trigger generator 32 by covering letter with subscriber registration form an amount ?. The amount, ?, by which the trigger pulse is delayed is controlled by a control unit 38 . The output of the variable delay unit 34 is thomas questions, applied to Q-switch 30 . The delay may be arbitrary in paper length, from “0” to approximately 250 milliseconds or longer depending on the population inversion and inversion and energy pumped into the laser host material. In operation, the laser excitation driver initiates a flash lamp pulse which is coupled into thomas essay questions the laser medium causing a population inversion. Simultaneously, trigger generator 32 is actuated to provide a trigger pulse to Q-switch 28 . Medium 10 lases in at least two different colors which energy propagates towards beam splitter 22 . At this point, the beam is directed into different cavity portions. When triggered, Q-switch 28 permits the passage of the energy to mirror 24 . This energy is reflected back through Q-switch 28 through beam splitter 22 through the laser medium and out through mirror 20 to form a first spiked pulse, illustrated by pulse 40 . After a predetermined time delay, ?, the trigger pulse from trigger generator 32 is applied to Q-switch 30 which permits light of the second color to propagate down this section of the laser cavity. Light impinges upon mirror 26 and is reflected back through Q-switch 30 , through beam splitter 22 , through laser medium 10 and out through mirror 20 for the production of the second spiked pulse illustrated by research pulse 42 . These pulses may be detected by a conventional detector 43 responsive to light at both ? 1 and ? 2 to produce the double pulse output shown. This system may also be used for thomas essay questions lasers having the FIG.
2 b transition characteristic where Q-switching is sufficiently rapid to prohibit complete depopulation with the generation of the first pulse. The laser system thus described is defined by two cavities with the first cavity being defined as the theme b research paper, optical path between mirror 20 and mirror 24 and with the second optical cavity being defined by the path between mirror 20 and mirror 26 . It will be appreciated that the number of pulses which can be generated is determined by the number of colors produced by the laser and by the number of optical cavities which are provided. Thus the number of pulses which can be produced for each laser pumping pulse is dependent on the number of radiative transitions within the laser host material. Referring to FIG. 3, a laser system is illustrated in which the laser host material lases in at least two wavelengths, with transitions from a single high energy level to different lower energy levels. This laser host material thus has the transition characteristic illustrated in FIG. 2 b. As mentioned hereinbefore, the use of a conventional beam splitting device to direct the essay, output from the laser material into the two laser cavities may result in essay 6 7 8 the generation of only the pulse when the Q-switching is not sufficiently rapid. The reason for this is that all energy stored in the laser host material may be coupled out of the system with the generation of the first pulse. For most laser material, the introduction of energy via a flash lamp results in the heating of the laser material which results in stress induced birefringence.
This in turn results in the production of light which is orthogonally polarized. In the case of two transitions it has been found that light of one color will be polarized in essay one direction as indicated by arrows 27 , while light of the other color will be polarized in an orthogonal direction as indicated by arrows 29 . Thus in the case of single-to-multiple energy level decay, the write research paper, conventional beam splitting device may be replaced by a polarizing beam splitting device 31 which includes two back-to-back prisms. The prisms may preferably be made of calcite which, as is the case for most transparent material, has an index of refraction which not only varies as a function of thomas essay, wavelength but also as a function of polarization direction. Where the difference in b research paper the wavelengths of the light produced by a laser rod is great, color separation can be accomplished by the difference in refractive index for the two wavelengths. Thus light having one color and thomas essay, polarization will be reflected away from the optical axis while light of the other color and on college, polarization will be refracted and directed along the same optical path. This, for instance, could be the case for a laser material which lases both at essay questions, 0.85 microns and 1.73 microns. Color separation is therefore based on the change in refractive index with wavelength. However, for a laser rod which lases at 1.06 and 1.31 microns, the change in is the the index of refraction is thomas hardy essay, very slight and in most cases prevents complete color separation by write paper analysis refractive techniques alone. On the other hand, the change in refractive index for beams which are orthogonally polarized is great which permits separation of the two colored components on thomas hardy account of their polarization alone. Taking as an example the system of FIG. 3, it will be appreciated that the beam which is horizontally polarized, e.g. as shown by arrows 29 , enters the beam splitter 31 at an angle which exceeds Brewster's angle for this polarization and is therefore internally reflected.
This occurs because as far as a beam having horizontal polarization light is concerned, the refractive index of the material is much higher than that which is “seen” by vertically polarized light. Theme For English B Research! As a result, vertically polarized light enters beam splitter 31 and is refracted rather than being reflected. Thus, the horizontally polarized beam effectively enters the prism at less than Brewster's angle and is reflected while the questions, vertically polarized beam is refracted. This is illustrated by the horizontally polarized beam of one color projected along optical path 17 , while vertical polarized light of the other color is directed down optical path 16 . Beam splitting device 31 may be provided with anti-reflective coatings 33 , 35 and 37 on the face of the prisms as denoted in FIG. 3, for the purpose of eliminating surface reflections. Assuming that the wavelength of light projected along optical path 16 is write research, 1.06 microns and assuming that the wavelength of the thomas essay questions, light projecting down optical path 17 is 1.31 microns, then optical coatings 35 and 37 are narrow band “V” coatings at 1.31 microns and 1.06 microns, respectively. Optical coating 33 is a broadband anti-reflective coating which encompasses the 1.06 and 1.31 wavelengths. It will be appreciated that as before mirrors 24 and 26 are provided with reflective coatings at ? 1 and ? 2 respectively. Thus, a multi-color laser system of the single-to-multiple energy level transition has been provided in covering letter with subscriber application form which the color components are orthogonally polarized so that it is possible to generate two or more pulses from a single optical pumping pulse. The system of FIG. 3 may also be utilized for lasers having the questions, FIG.
2 a transition characteristic for more complete color separation, since stress birefringent polarization is not limited to lasers of the FIG. 2 b transition configuration. By way of example, rod materials including ruby, Nd +3 :YAG and Nd:YLF have radiative transitions as illustrated in FIG. 2 b . For English B Research! Additionally, so called “dye” lasers have radiative transitions of both types. The double pulse laser systems illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 3 are set forth by way of example only, and no limitation to any two colors or any two color lasers is intended thereby. In the following table are listed a number of laser host materials along with the transitions for the laser host materials. This list is not exhaustive but is merely indicative of the number of laser mediums adaptable to the subject invention. It will be appreciated that all of the elements which individually make up the system thus described are available commercially. For instance, beam splitting device 22 or 31 may be obtained from the Carl Lambrecht Corp. of Chicago, Ill. with any of the conventional narrow band anti-reflective “V” coatings. The trigger may be obtained as model TR-179 from hardy EGG of Boston, Mass. the Q-switches may take the form of bleachable dyes, Kerrcells, mirrors, acousto-optic grating spoilers or electro-optical Q-switches such as lithium niobate units.
In one embodiment the Q-switch is of the KD*P (potassium dideuteron phosphate) type available as model EO 514 from Isomet Corp. of is the night, Pallisades Park, N.J. In these Q-switches an hardy essay applied relative field changes the covering with subscriber application form, polarization of the device to gate the hardy essay questions, light. The quality of the Q-switch that is most important is that it go off quickly as well as go on is the quickly. Several of the Kappa-Scientific Corp. of thomas hardy questions, Santa Barbara, Calif. Q-switches have the appropriate switching parameters (of the KERRMAN 550 series). Moreover the variable delay unit may be obtained from Kappa Scientific Corp. as model KD1000 or KD2000. With respect to the range of pulse spacings available it will be appreciated that the pulses can be made to overlap by simultaneous triggering of Q-switches.
The length of the interpulse spacing depends on the energy coupled into the laser host material and by the decay time of the rubric literary 8, excited electrons after the optical pumping pulse has been delivered. Thomas Essay! At the present there are statistically very few excited electrons left after 230 microseconds and this may be the write research paper, practical upper limit to the pulse spacing at least for the common host materials. The pulse repetition rate for typical optically pulse pumped lasers is generally within a range of hardy essay, 10-100 pulses per second. Thus 10-100 double, triple, etc. pulses per covering registration application, second can be generated by the subject system. With respect to the power requirements of the subject system it will be appreciated that cavities are provided for all transitions such that little, if any, energy will be lost to fluorescence. Referring now to FIG. 4, a typical laser system is illustrated comprising a laser medium 50 , energizing means 52 , reflecting and partially reflecting mirrors 54 and 56 , a Q-switching device 58 , an associated trigger 60 , a variable power source 62 connected to hardy, the energizing means and a non-linear element 64 situated in the optical cavity along the optical axis thereof. This non-linear element is described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,829,791 entitled “Variable Pulse Laser” issued to Jack Schwartz on Aug.
13, 1974 and assigned to the assignee hereof. The patent is letter with, incorporated herein by reference. The element in one embodiment is CdS or CdSe and acts as an thomas energy absorber and reradiator which in effect stretches the pulses in accordance with the input energy coupled into the laser host material. The pulse width is thus readily varied by changing the power pumped into the laser host material. On College Application! The relationship of thomas hardy questions, pulse width to pumping power is illustrated by the graph of FIG. 5 . It can thus be seen that pulse width modulation can be readily achieved by modulation of the power supply voltage. Moreover, as mentioned hereinbefore, by stretching the output pulse a longer period of illumination is achieved. Thus, when the non-linear element is incorporated into one or more of the application, laser cavities of the system illustrated in FIG. 1, three parameters may be utilized to convey information, e.g. color pulse spacing and pulse width.
Moreover, when the non-linear device is thomas, positioned in one cavity, one of the pulses will be elongated so as to perform both an information conveying function and rubric literary essay, an illumination function. Referring now to thomas hardy essay questions, FIG. 6, a laser system 70 is illustrated in rubric literary essay grade 6 7 which color difference is accomplished by thomas essay polarizing beam splitter 31 with anti-reflective coatings 31 , 33 and 35 as described in connection with FIG. 3 . In this system a laser medium 75 is for english, provided which produces radiation at two wavelengths in hardy accordance with the transitions of FIG. 2 b . In addition to the production of laser radiation at two wavelengths, it is grade 6 7 8, a property of the radiation produced by the host material that radiation of one color is polarized in one direction, generally indicated by arrows 76 , while radiation of the thomas hardy questions, other wavelength is polarized in an orthogonal direction as illustrated by arrows 78 . The other elements of the covering letter subscriber registration application form, laser system illustrated in FIG. 6 are similar to those in FIGS. 3 and 4 with like elements being assigned like reference characters.
In this embodiment, the non-linear element 64 of FIG. 3 is inserted into optical path 17 to provide a stretched pulse 80 which occurs after a spiked pulse 82 produced when Q-switch 28 is activated by trigger generator 32 . The pulse width of pulse 80 is controlled by the variable driver power source 62 , since the nonlinear element 64 is essay questions, positioned in the cavity tuned to the ? 1 transition of the host material. The variable power source may be made to essays, vary the hardy essay questions, power to the flash lamp in accordance with any intelligence to be transmitted. In operation, upon optical pumping the essays on college, laser host material lases producing an output at essay, ? 1 and ? 2 with the ? 1 output being polarized for instance in a vertical direction, and the ? 2 output being polarized orthogonally as illustrated in a horizontal direction. These two components are separated and transmitted along optical paths 16 and essays, 17 respectively and are recombined again along optical path 15 as illustrated. The placement of a nonlinear element 64 in essay optical path 17 results in the aforementioned stretched pulse 80 while the radiation from optical path 16 results in the spiked pulse 82 . Covering With Subscriber Registration Form! Thus the output from the laser system is composed of two-colored light with each color in its original polarized orientation.
In a still further embodiment an in-line multicolor, multipulse laser is hardy, illustrated in FIGS. 7 and 8. Referring to FIG. 7, in this embodiment a laser medium 100 is illuminated with a flash lamp 102 driven by a suitable driver 104 . This laser medium is located in a cavity tuned to the ? 1 transition of the laser which is defined by a partially reflecting mirror 106 at wavelengths ? 1 and write paper, ? 2 and a mirror 108 which is reflective at ? 1 . A first Q-switch 110 is located between mirror 108 and laser medium 100 and is operated by driver 104 in accordance with the optical pumping of the thomas questions, laser medium. In one embodiment this Q-switch only gates ? 1 radiation because of the unique polarization of research paper, this wavelength due to the aforementioned birefringent effect. A Pockel's cell is such a Q-switch. Thus, in a preferred embodiment this Q-switch is a Pockel's cell polarized in the direction of the polarization of the ? 1 output from the laser medium.
It will be appreciated that this type of Q-switch has very little, if any, effect on the ? 2 radiation from the laser medium. Thomas Essay Questions! Thus, the Q-switch 110 influences light of one polarization as indicated by arrows 112 and does not affect orthogonally polarized light as indicated by article summary arrows 114 . In this embodiment, ? 1 is chosen to be shorter than ? 2 . The second laser cavity for the ? 2 wavelength of the laser is defined by mirror 106 and a mirror 116 reflective at the ? 2 wavelength of the laser, with a second Q-switch 118 interposed between mirror 116 and thomas hardy, mirror 108 . A variable delay unit 120 is essays, provided to hardy, control Q-switch 118 , with the tender is the night, delay being controlled by a control circuit 122 as described hereinbefore. It will be appreciated that mirror 108 , while being substantially reflective at ? 1 , is thomas essay, substantially transmissive at ? 2 . Thus, Q-switch 110 and article summary, mirror 108 permit the in-line configuration by effectively being nonresponsive to the ? 2 wavelength. In operation, driver 104 provides a pumping pulse to flashlamp 112 which causes laser medium 100 to be excited, thereby to emit radiation at both wavelengths. Responsive to the pumping of the hardy, laser medium Q-switch 110 is actuated to gate ? 1 wavelength light to mirror 108 and then to literary grade 6 7 8, block ? 1 radiation in the cavity tuned to ? 1 such that a first pulse having one polarization and one color, ? 1 , is coupled out thomas hardy of the system through mirror 106 . Thereafter, variable delay unit 120 actuates Q-switch 118 such that light at the ? 2 wavelength is gated to mirror 116 and then blocked. This produces a second pulse having a different polarization and color, ? 2 , which is coupled out of the system through mirror 106 . During this second Q-switching operation, Q-switch 110 and mirror 108 are effectively removed from the article summary, system and thomas hardy, the effective cavity length is the distance between mirrors 106 and 116 . Thus there is a common cavity portion for both wavelengths, the common cavity being the cavity defined by mirrors 106 and 108 . Alternatively, Q-switch 110 may be gated on again with the gating on of Q-switch 118 such that any residual effect of Q-switch 110 on article summary the ? 2 wavelength pulse is eliminated. Essay Questions! This permits Q-switch 110 to be any of a variety of Q-switches. Referring now to FIG. 8, a polarizing element 130 may be interposed between Q-switch 118 and mirror 108 . This element is polarized in a direction to reject the ? 1 wavelength radiation while transmitting the ? 2 wavelength radiation to provide an added measure of isolation between the ? 2 and ? 1 wavelengths. What has therefore been accomplished is the provision of research analysis, a laser system which by virtue of thomas hardy questions, its multicolor, multicavity configuration is able to produce multiple pulses with a high degree of control of both pulse spacing and pulse width.
The number of pulses per is the night, individual flash lamp pulse is limited only by the number of wavelengths at which the laser host material lases and essay questions, the number of article summary, cavities which are provided. Thus, any combination of essay questions, color, pulse spacings and pulse width modulation is possible with the system described. On College Application! Moreover, because of the discovery that the light produced with a two color laser is polarized and orthogonally oriented, multiple pulses can be produced from lasers having the FIG. 2 b transition configuration when rapid Q-switching is not available. Thomas Hardy Questions! Moreover, since all transitions of the laser are utilized no energy is article summary, lost to fluorescence and the energy requirements for the laser system are minimized. The versatility of the thomas essay, subject system is manifest in the type of theme b research, control over the output of the laser and essay questions, the unique ease with which the pulse parameters can be varied. One of the most attractive features of the subject invention is the degree of analysis, control over the interpulse spacing. The control is accomplished through the accurate control of the Q-switches. Since currently available Q-switching devices now exist with extremely sharp rise and decay characteristics, the accuracy of the interpulse spacing depends on the accuracy of the control pulses which can conventionally be quite accurately controlled.
Thus, interpulse jitter can be held low. Although a specific embodiment to the invention has been described in considerable detail for illustrative purposes, many modifications will occur to those skilled in the art. It is therefore desired that the questions, protection afforded by Letters Patent be limited only by the true scope of the application, appended claims.